Abstract

Three novel linewidth-tolerant, low-complexity, two-stage feed-forward carrier phase estimation algorithms are introduced for dual-polarization 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (DP 16-QAM) with coherent detection. The first stage employs either the quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) partitioning algorithm, simplified QPSK partitioning algorithm, or blind phase search (BPS) algorithm. The second stage employs a novel modified QPSK partitioning algorithm. Based on experimental data, all three algorithms achieve comparable performance for DP 16-QAM back to back and transmission systems. The linewidth tolerance for the three algorithms is numerically studied. A linewidth symbol duration product of 1.3× 10<sup>-4</sup> is demonstrated for a 1 dB optical signal-to-noise-ratio penalty at a bit error ratio of 10<sup>-3</sup> for all the proposed algorithms, which is comparable to the single-stage BPS algorithm with a large number of test phases. Reductions in the hardware complexity by factors of about 1.7–5.3 are achieved in comparison to the single-stage BPS algorithm.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. E. Lach, W. Idler, "Modulation formats for 100G and beyond," Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 377-386 (2011).
  2. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).
  3. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noé, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).
  4. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).
  5. Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, J. Wu, Y. Li, K. Xu, W. Li, J. T. Lin, "Low-complexity and phase noise tolerant carrier phase estimation for dual-polarization 16-QAM systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 21717-21729 (2011).
  6. T. Pfau, R. Noé, "Phase-noise-tolerant two-stage carrier recovery concept for higher order QAM formats," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1210-1216 (2010).
  7. J. Li, L. Li, Z. Tao, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Laser-linewidth-tolerant feed-forward carrier phase estimator with reduced complexity for QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2358-2364 (2011).
  8. X. Zhou, J. Yu, "Two-stage feed-forward carrier phase recovery algorithm for high-order coherent modulation formats," Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010).
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  11. A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-29, 543-551 (1983).
  12. J.-K. Hwang, Y.-L. Chiu, C.-S. Liao, "Angle differential-QAM scheme for resolving phase ambiguity in continuous transmission system," Int. J. Commun. Syst. 21, 631-641 (2008).
  13. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Compensation of frequency offset for differentially encoded 16- and 64-QAM in the presence of laser phase noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 176-178 (2010).
  14. I. Fatadin, S. J. Savory, D. Ives, "Compensation of quadrature imbalance in an optical QPSK coherent receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1733-1735 (2008).
  15. H. Meyer, M. Moeneclaey, S. A. Fechtel, Digital Communications Receivers (Wiley, 1997).
  16. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Blind equalization and carrier phase recovery in a 16-QAM optical coherent system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3042-3049 (2009).
  17. M. Selmi, Y. Jaouën, P. Cibalt, "Accurate digital frequency offset estimator for coherent polmux QAM transmission systems," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2009).
  18. T. Pfau, R. Peveling, V. Herath, S. Hoffmann, C. Wordehoff, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, "Towards real-time implementation of coherent optical communication," Proc. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (2009).

2012 (1)

J. H. Ke, K. P. Zhong, Y. Gao, J. C. Cartledge, A. S. Karar, M. A. Rezania, "Linewidth-tolerant and low-complexity two-stage carrier phase estimation for dual-polarization 16-QAM coherent optical fiber communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3987-3992 (2012).

2011 (3)

J. Li, L. Li, Z. Tao, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Laser-linewidth-tolerant feed-forward carrier phase estimator with reduced complexity for QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2358-2364 (2011).

E. Lach, W. Idler, "Modulation formats for 100G and beyond," Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 377-386 (2011).

Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, J. Wu, Y. Li, K. Xu, W. Li, J. T. Lin, "Low-complexity and phase noise tolerant carrier phase estimation for dual-polarization 16-QAM systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 21717-21729 (2011).

2010 (4)

T. Pfau, R. Noé, "Phase-noise-tolerant two-stage carrier recovery concept for higher order QAM formats," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1210-1216 (2010).

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Compensation of frequency offset for differentially encoded 16- and 64-QAM in the presence of laser phase noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 176-178 (2010).

2009 (2)

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Blind equalization and carrier phase recovery in a 16-QAM optical coherent system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3042-3049 (2009).

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noé, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

2008 (2)

J.-K. Hwang, Y.-L. Chiu, C.-S. Liao, "Angle differential-QAM scheme for resolving phase ambiguity in continuous transmission system," Int. J. Commun. Syst. 21, 631-641 (2008).

I. Fatadin, S. J. Savory, D. Ives, "Compensation of quadrature imbalance in an optical QPSK coherent receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1733-1735 (2008).

1983 (1)

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-29, 543-551 (1983).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

I. Fatadin, S. J. Savory, D. Ives, "Compensation of quadrature imbalance in an optical QPSK coherent receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1733-1735 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Compensation of frequency offset for differentially encoded 16- and 64-QAM in the presence of laser phase noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 176-178 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-29, 543-551 (1983).

Int. J. Commun. Syst. (1)

J.-K. Hwang, Y.-L. Chiu, C.-S. Liao, "Angle differential-QAM scheme for resolving phase ambiguity in continuous transmission system," Int. J. Commun. Syst. 21, 631-641 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Pfau, R. Noé, "Phase-noise-tolerant two-stage carrier recovery concept for higher order QAM formats," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1210-1216 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Blind equalization and carrier phase recovery in a 16-QAM optical coherent system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3042-3049 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

J. H. Ke, K. P. Zhong, Y. Gao, J. C. Cartledge, A. S. Karar, M. A. Rezania, "Linewidth-tolerant and low-complexity two-stage carrier phase estimation for dual-polarization 16-QAM coherent optical fiber communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3987-3992 (2012).

J. Li, L. Li, Z. Tao, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Laser-linewidth-tolerant feed-forward carrier phase estimator with reduced complexity for QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2358-2364 (2011).

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noé, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, J. Wu, Y. Li, K. Xu, W. Li, J. T. Lin, "Low-complexity and phase noise tolerant carrier phase estimation for dual-polarization 16-QAM systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 21717-21729 (2011).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

E. Lach, W. Idler, "Modulation formats for 100G and beyond," Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 377-386 (2011).

Other (5)

M. Selmi, Y. Jaouën, P. Cibalt, "Accurate digital frequency offset estimator for coherent polmux QAM transmission systems," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2009).

T. Pfau, R. Peveling, V. Herath, S. Hoffmann, C. Wordehoff, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, "Towards real-time implementation of coherent optical communication," Proc. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (2009).

H. Meyer, M. Moeneclaey, S. A. Fechtel, Digital Communications Receivers (Wiley, 1997).

X. Zhou, J. Yu, "Two-stage feed-forward carrier phase recovery algorithm for high-order coherent modulation formats," Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010).

M. Seimetz, "Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high-order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation," Proc. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (2008) pp. 1-3.

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