Abstract

An exact theory describing the intensity PSD of photonic signal processors based on modulated thermal sources with smooth spectrum, first-order dispersion and intensity-noise-limited direct detection is presented. The theory is applied to the evaluation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of Microwave Photonic Filters (MPF) and of systems based on Incoherent Frequency-to-Time Mapping (IFTM) and Time-Spectrum Convolution (TSC) driven by thermal carriers whose optical spectra (continuous or sliced) is smooth at microwave scales. It is shown that the noise PSD of MPF based on low-index amplitude modulation coincides with the white-noise PSD of unmodulated, continuous wave (cw) polarized thermal light. In turn, both IFTM and TSC show modulation-dependent noise PSDs resulting in an SNR not better than cw, which decreases with pulse spreading. For IFTM the SNR is poor, with typical values of a few dB, whereas the SNR of TSC interpolates between the cw SNR and that of IFTM, thus showing a range of parameters where the SNR of IFTM is outperformed.

© 2012 IEEE

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  31. D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall, 1998).
  32. P. R. Morkel, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, "Noise characteristics of high-power doped-fibre superluminescent sources," Electron. Lett. 26, 96-96 (1990).
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  35. C. Dorrer, "Temporal van Cittert-Zernike theorem and its application to the measurement of chromatic dispersion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1417-1423 (2004).
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  40. J. Martí, F. Ramos, R. I. Laming, "Photonic microwave filter employing multimode optical sources and wideband chirped fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 34, 1760-1761 (1998).
  41. J. Capmany, A. Martinez, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "Transfer function of analog fiber-optic systems driven by Fabry-Perot lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 2099-2106 (2005).
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2012 (2)

M. Bolea, J. Mora, B. Ortega, J. Capmany, "Nonlinear dispersion-based incoherent photonic processing for microwave pulse generation with full reconfigurability," Opt. Exp. 20, 6728-6736 (2012).

A. Malacarne, R. Ashrafi, M. Li, S. LaRochelle, J. Yao, J. Azaña, "Single-shot photonic time-intensity integration based on a time-spectrum convolution system," Opt. Lett. 37, 1355-1357 (2012).

2011 (2)

A. Malacarne, R. Ashrafi, Y. Park, J. Azaña, "Reconfigurable optical differential phase-shift-keying pattern recognition based on incoherent photonic processing," Opt. Lett. 36, 4290-4292 (2011).

M. Bolea, J. Mora, B. Ortega, J. Capmany, "Optical arbitrary waveform generator using incoherent microwave photonic filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 618-620 (2011).

2010 (2)

Y. Park, J. Azaña, "Ultrahigh dispersion of broadband microwave signals by incoherent photonic processing," Opt. Exp. 18, 14752-14761 (2010).

Y. Park, J. Azaña, "Optical signal processors based on a time-spectrum convolution," Opt. Lett. 35, 796-798 (2010).

2009 (4)

C. Dorrer, "Statistical analysis of incoherent pulse shaping," Opt. Exp. 17, 3341-3352 (2009).

Y. Park, J. Azaña, "Ultrafast photonic intensity integrator," Opt. Lett. 34, 1156-1158 (2009).

X. Xue, H. Wen, X. Zheng, H. Zhang, Y. Guo, B. Zhou, "Noise analysis in photonic true time delay systems based on broadband optical source and dispersion components," Appl. Opt. 48, 658-663 (2009).

C. R. Fernández-Pousa, "Intensity spectra after first-order dispersion of composite models of cyclostationary light," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 26, 993-1007 (2009).

2008 (2)

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, L. R. Chen, "Reconfigurable RF-waveform generation based on incoherent filter design," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2476-2483 (2008).

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, L. R. Chen, "20 GHz arbitrary radio-frequency waveform generation based on incoherent pulse shaping," Opt. Exp. 16, 21564-21569 (2008).

2007 (1)

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, "Incoherent frequency-to-time mapping: Application to incoherent pulse shaping," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 24, 888-894 (2007).

2006 (7)

L. Chantada, C. R. Fernández-Pousa, C. Gómez Reino, "Theory of the partially coherent temporal Talbot effect," Opt. Commun. 266, 393-398 (2006).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "A tutorial on microwave photonic filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).

J. Mora, B. Ortega, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, "Photonic microwave tunable single-bandpass filter based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2500-2509 (2006).

X. Yi, R. A. Minasian, "Noise mitigation in spectrum sliced microwave photonic signal processors," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4959-4965 (2006).

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, "Arbitrary waveform generation based on all-incoherent pulse shaping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2626-2628 (2006).

W. A. Gardner, A. Napolitano, L. Paura, "Cyclostationarity: Half a century of research," Signal Process. 86, 639-697 (2006).

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Mora, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "Tunable radio-frequency photonic filter based on an actively mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 709-711 (2006).

2005 (3)

J. Capmany, A. Martinez, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "Transfer function of analog fiber-optic systems driven by Fabry-Perot lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 2099-2106 (2005).

F. Gori, "Far-zone approximation for partially coherent sources," Opt. Lett. 30, 2840-2842 (2005).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2500-2509 (2005).

2004 (1)

C. Dorrer, "Temporal van Cittert-Zernike theorem and its application to the measurement of chromatic dispersion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1417-1423 (2004).

2001 (1)

G. E. Obarski, J. D. Splett, "Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 18, 750-761 (2001).

2000 (1)

W. K. Marshall, A. Yariv, "Spectrum of the intensity of modulated noisy light after propagation in dispersive fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 302-304 (2000).

1998 (1)

J. Martí, F. Ramos, R. I. Laming, "Photonic microwave filter employing multimode optical sources and wideband chirped fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 34, 1760-1761 (1998).

1997 (2)

G. J. Pendock, D. D. Sampson, "Signal-to-noise ratio of modulated sources of ASE transmitted over dispersive fiber," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1002-1004 (1997).

A. J. Keating, D. D. Sampson, "Reduction of excess intensity noise in spectrum-sliced incoherent light for WDM applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 53-61 (1997).

1996 (1)

G. J. Pendock, D. D. Sampson, "Transmission performance of high bit-rate spectrum-sliced WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2141-2148 (1996).

1994 (1)

D. Norton, S. Johns, C. Keefer, R. Soref, "Tunable microwave filtering using high dispersion fiber time delays," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 6, 831-832 (1994).

1990 (1)

P. R. Morkel, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, "Noise characteristics of high-power doped-fibre superluminescent sources," Electron. Lett. 26, 96-96 (1990).

1983 (1)

C.-C. Wang, "Transmission of a Gaussian pulse in single-mode fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 1, 572-579 (1983).

1980 (1)

1978 (1)

1973 (1)

S. D. Personick, "Baseband linearity and equalization in fiber optic digital communication systems," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1175-1194 (1973).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

S. D. Personick, "Baseband linearity and equalization in fiber optic digital communication systems," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1175-1194 (1973).

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. R. Morkel, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, "Noise characteristics of high-power doped-fibre superluminescent sources," Electron. Lett. 26, 96-96 (1990).

J. Martí, F. Ramos, R. I. Laming, "Photonic microwave filter employing multimode optical sources and wideband chirped fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 34, 1760-1761 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

W. K. Marshall, A. Yariv, "Spectrum of the intensity of modulated noisy light after propagation in dispersive fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 302-304 (2000).

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, "Arbitrary waveform generation based on all-incoherent pulse shaping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2626-2628 (2006).

M. Bolea, J. Mora, B. Ortega, J. Capmany, "Optical arbitrary waveform generator using incoherent microwave photonic filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 618-620 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

D. Norton, S. Johns, C. Keefer, R. Soref, "Tunable microwave filtering using high dispersion fiber time delays," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 6, 831-832 (1994).

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. J. Pendock, D. D. Sampson, "Signal-to-noise ratio of modulated sources of ASE transmitted over dispersive fiber," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1002-1004 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

X. Yi, R. A. Minasian, "Noise mitigation in spectrum sliced microwave photonic signal processors," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4959-4965 (2006).

G. J. Pendock, D. D. Sampson, "Transmission performance of high bit-rate spectrum-sliced WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2141-2148 (1996).

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, L. R. Chen, "Reconfigurable RF-waveform generation based on incoherent filter design," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2476-2483 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, "Incoherent frequency-to-time mapping: Application to incoherent pulse shaping," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 24, 888-894 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

J. Capmany, A. Martinez, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "Transfer function of analog fiber-optic systems driven by Fabry-Perot lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 2099-2106 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C.-C. Wang, "Transmission of a Gaussian pulse in single-mode fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 1, 572-579 (1983).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2500-2509 (2005).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "A tutorial on microwave photonic filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).

J. Mora, B. Ortega, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, "Photonic microwave tunable single-bandpass filter based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2500-2509 (2006).

A. J. Keating, D. D. Sampson, "Reduction of excess intensity noise in spectrum-sliced incoherent light for WDM applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 53-61 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

C. R. Fernández-Pousa, "Intensity spectra after first-order dispersion of composite models of cyclostationary light," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 26, 993-1007 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (2)

G. E. Obarski, J. D. Splett, "Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 18, 750-761 (2001).

C. Dorrer, "Temporal van Cittert-Zernike theorem and its application to the measurement of chromatic dispersion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1417-1423 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (2)

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, L. R. Chen, "20 GHz arbitrary radio-frequency waveform generation based on incoherent pulse shaping," Opt. Exp. 16, 21564-21569 (2008).

Y. Park, J. Azaña, "Ultrahigh dispersion of broadband microwave signals by incoherent photonic processing," Opt. Exp. 18, 14752-14761 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (1)

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Mora, J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "Tunable radio-frequency photonic filter based on an actively mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 709-711 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Chantada, C. R. Fernández-Pousa, C. Gómez Reino, "Theory of the partially coherent temporal Talbot effect," Opt. Commun. 266, 393-398 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (2)

C. Dorrer, "Statistical analysis of incoherent pulse shaping," Opt. Exp. 17, 3341-3352 (2009).

M. Bolea, J. Mora, B. Ortega, J. Capmany, "Nonlinear dispersion-based incoherent photonic processing for microwave pulse generation with full reconfigurability," Opt. Exp. 20, 6728-6736 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Signal Process. (1)

W. A. Gardner, A. Napolitano, L. Paura, "Cyclostationarity: Half a century of research," Signal Process. 86, 639-697 (2006).

Other (6)

L. Mandel, E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995) pp. 179-180.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall, 1998).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communications Systems (Wiley, 2002).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 2000).

F. P. Kapron, "Baseband response function of monomode fibers," Dig. Top. Meet. Opt. Fiber Commun. (1979) pp. 104.

H. Mu, H. Xia, J. Yao, "A frequency shift keying transmitter based on incoherent frequency-to-time mapping for free-space optical communications," Proc. 2010 IEEE Topical Meeting Microw. Photonics (MWP) (2010) pp. 208-211.

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