Abstract

A specifically designed SMA connector with jacket signal pin configuration is used to connect the transistor outline can (TO-can) packaged Fabry–Pérot laser diode (FPLD) for enhancing its direct modulation bandwidth beyond 6 GHz. The direct modulation of such an TO-can/jacket-SMA packaged FPLD with a 256 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and single subcarrier optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OOFDM) format data stream at carrier frequency up to 6 GHz is approached with 10 MSa/s symbol rate. The optimized 256-QAM data with error vector magnitude (EVM) of 1.5% and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 32.5 dB are observed, corresponding to a bit error rate as low as $ 1.1 × 10<sup>-6</sup> and a highest carrier-to-noise ratio of 43.5 dB. Under injection locking, the tradeoff between the lengthened photon lifetime and the enlarged threshold current reduction of such an M-QAM-N-OOFDM modulated FPLD is theoretically and experimentally investigated to explain the saturation of SNR at 31.5 dB and EVM at 1.7%. Both 16-QAM and 64-QAM 200-subcarrier OOFDM formats with total transmission bit rates up to 15.6 and 23.4 Gb/s, respectively, are performed at carrier frequency of 2 GHz. The corresponding EVM and SNR for the 16-QAM OOFDM are determined as 11.67% and 20 dB, respectively. Under 64-QAM and 200-subcarrier OOFDM modulation, the received data stream shows a slightly degraded EVM and SNR of 12.85% and 19 dB, respectively.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).
  2. Y. Tang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "107 Gb/s CO-OFDM transmission with inline chromatic dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OWW3.
  3. H. Bao, W. Shieh, "Transmission simulation of coherent OOFDM signals in WDM systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 4410-4418 (2007).
  4. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, C. L. Pan, S. Chi, "WDM extended reach passive optical networks using QAM-OFDM," Opt. Exp. 16, 12096-12101 (2008).
  5. H. H. Lu, W. J. Wang, Y. C. Lai, N. Y. Lin, "Hybrid AM-VSB/256-QAM/internet transport systems in the campus," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 49, 103-106 (2003).
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  10. P. Y. Chiang, C. Tai, W. I. Way, "33-Channel 64-QAM signal transmission using a 1.3-$\mu$m semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 119-121 (1996).
  11. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Wu, H. Y. Chen, Y. H. Lin, "13-Gb/s WDM-OFDM PON using RSOA-based colorless ONU with seeding light source in the local exchange," Electron Lett. 47, 1235-1236 (2011).
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  13. G.-R. Lin, H. L. Wang, G. C. Lin, Y. H. Huang, Y. H. Lin, T. K. Cheng, "Comparison on injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode with front-facet reflectivity of 1% and 30% for optical data transmission in WDM-PON system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 830-841 (2009).
  14. G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chi, Y. S. Liao, H. C. Kuo, Z. W. Liao, H. L. Wang, G. C. Lin, "A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission," Opt. Exp. 20, 13622-13635 (2012).
  15. C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, P. C. Peng, C. Chang-Hasnain, G.-R. Lin, "Beyond-bandwidth electrical-pulse modulation of a TO-can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection-locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 830-841 (2011).
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  17. T.-T. Shih, P.-H. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lai, W.-H. Cheng, "A 25 Gbit/s transmitter optical sub-assembly package employing cost-effective TO-can materials and processes," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 834-840 (2012).
  18. T.-T. Shih, P.-H. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lai, W.-H. Cheng, "Compact TO-can header with bandwidth excess 40 GHz," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2538-2544 (2011).
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  20. V. J. Urick, J. X. Qiu, J. L. Dexter, K. J. Williams, F. Bucholtz, C. McDermitt, "Giga-symbol-per-second 16-QAM transmission over a single-channel Raman-amplified 100 km link," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2003) Paper ThM2.
  21. T. Pollet, M. Vanblade, M. Moeneclaey, "BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).
  22. L.-L. Yang, "A recursive algorithm for the error probability evaluation of M-QAM," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 304-306 (2000).
  23. Y.-C. Chang, Y.-H. Lin, J. Chen, G.-R. Lin, "All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode at unlasing condition," Opt. Exp. 12, 4449-4456 (2004).
  24. Y.-S. Liao, H.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Chen, G.-R. Lin, "Side-mode transmission diagnosis of a multichannel selectable injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode with anti-reflection coated front facet," Opt. Exp. 17, 4859-4867 (2009).
  25. G.-R. Lin, "Mutual injection locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser and a fiber-pigtailed Fabry–Perot laser diode," Opt. Lett. 28, 1203-1205 (2003).
  26. G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Chang, "Theory and experiments of a mode-beating noise-suppressed and mutually injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode and erbium-doped fiber amplifier link," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1014-1022 (2004).

2012 (2)

G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chi, Y. S. Liao, H. C. Kuo, Z. W. Liao, H. L. Wang, G. C. Lin, "A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission," Opt. Exp. 20, 13622-13635 (2012).

T.-T. Shih, P.-H. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lai, W.-H. Cheng, "A 25 Gbit/s transmitter optical sub-assembly package employing cost-effective TO-can materials and processes," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 834-840 (2012).

2011 (4)

T.-T. Shih, P.-H. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lai, W.-H. Cheng, "Compact TO-can header with bandwidth excess 40 GHz," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2538-2544 (2011).

C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, P. C. Peng, C. Chang-Hasnain, G.-R. Lin, "Beyond-bandwidth electrical-pulse modulation of a TO-can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection-locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 830-841 (2011).

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Wu, H. Y. Chen, Y. H. Lin, "13-Gb/s WDM-OFDM PON using RSOA-based colorless ONU with seeding light source in the local exchange," Electron Lett. 47, 1235-1236 (2011).

K. Kikuchi, "Analyses of wavelength- and polarization-division multiplexed transmission characteristics of optical quadrature-amplitude-modulation signals," Opt. Exp. 19, 17985-17995 (2011).

2010 (1)

G.-R. Lin, Y. S. Liao, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, G. C. Lin, H. L. Wang, Y. J. Chen, "Long-cavity Fabry–Perot laser amplifier transmitter with enhanced injection-locking bandwidth for WDM-PON application," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2925-2932 (2010).

2009 (3)

G.-R. Lin, H. L. Wang, G. C. Lin, Y. H. Huang, Y. H. Lin, T. K. Cheng, "Comparison on injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode with front-facet reflectivity of 1% and 30% for optical data transmission in WDM-PON system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 830-841 (2009).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

Y.-S. Liao, H.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Chen, G.-R. Lin, "Side-mode transmission diagnosis of a multichannel selectable injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode with anti-reflection coated front facet," Opt. Exp. 17, 4859-4867 (2009).

2008 (2)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, C. L. Pan, S. Chi, "WDM extended reach passive optical networks using QAM-OFDM," Opt. Exp. 16, 12096-12101 (2008).

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, G.-K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1547 (2008).

2007 (1)

H. Bao, W. Shieh, "Transmission simulation of coherent OOFDM signals in WDM systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 4410-4418 (2007).

2004 (3)

G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chang, J.-R. Wu, "Rational harmonic mode-locking of erbium-doped fiber laser at 40 GHz using a loss-modulated Fabry–Pérot laser diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1810-1812 (2004).

Y.-C. Chang, Y.-H. Lin, J. Chen, G.-R. Lin, "All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode at unlasing condition," Opt. Exp. 12, 4449-4456 (2004).

G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Chang, "Theory and experiments of a mode-beating noise-suppressed and mutually injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode and erbium-doped fiber amplifier link," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1014-1022 (2004).

2003 (2)

G.-R. Lin, "Mutual injection locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser and a fiber-pigtailed Fabry–Perot laser diode," Opt. Lett. 28, 1203-1205 (2003).

H. H. Lu, W. J. Wang, Y. C. Lai, N. Y. Lin, "Hybrid AM-VSB/256-QAM/internet transport systems in the campus," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 49, 103-106 (2003).

2000 (1)

L.-L. Yang, "A recursive algorithm for the error probability evaluation of M-QAM," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 304-306 (2000).

1998 (1)

S. L. Woodward, A. E. Chesnutt, A. H. Gnauck, X. Lu, "Transmission of M-QAM signals using an unisolated DFB laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1644-1646 (1998).

1996 (1)

P. Y. Chiang, C. Tai, W. I. Way, "33-Channel 64-QAM signal transmission using a 1.3-$\mu$m semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 119-121 (1996).

1995 (1)

T. Pollet, M. Vanblade, M. Moeneclaey, "BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).

Electron Lett. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Wu, H. Y. Chen, Y. H. Lin, "13-Gb/s WDM-OFDM PON using RSOA-based colorless ONU with seeding light source in the local exchange," Electron Lett. 47, 1235-1236 (2011).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

L.-L. Yang, "A recursive algorithm for the error probability evaluation of M-QAM," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 304-306 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-C. Chang, "Theory and experiments of a mode-beating noise-suppressed and mutually injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode and erbium-doped fiber amplifier link," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1014-1022 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

P. Y. Chiang, C. Tai, W. I. Way, "33-Channel 64-QAM signal transmission using a 1.3-$\mu$m semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 119-121 (1996).

G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chang, J.-R. Wu, "Rational harmonic mode-locking of erbium-doped fiber laser at 40 GHz using a loss-modulated Fabry–Pérot laser diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1810-1812 (2004).

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, G.-K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1547 (2008).

S. L. Woodward, A. E. Chesnutt, A. H. Gnauck, X. Lu, "Transmission of M-QAM signals using an unisolated DFB laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1644-1646 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast. (1)

H. H. Lu, W. J. Wang, Y. C. Lai, N. Y. Lin, "Hybrid AM-VSB/256-QAM/internet transport systems in the campus," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 49, 103-106 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

T. Pollet, M. Vanblade, M. Moeneclaey, "BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 191-193 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, P. C. Peng, C. Chang-Hasnain, G.-R. Lin, "Beyond-bandwidth electrical-pulse modulation of a TO-can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection-locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 830-841 (2011).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

T.-T. Shih, P.-H. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lai, W.-H. Cheng, "A 25 Gbit/s transmitter optical sub-assembly package employing cost-effective TO-can materials and processes," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 834-840 (2012).

T.-T. Shih, P.-H. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lai, W.-H. Cheng, "Compact TO-can header with bandwidth excess 40 GHz," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2538-2544 (2011).

G.-R. Lin, Y. S. Liao, Y. C. Chi, H. C. Kuo, G. C. Lin, H. L. Wang, Y. J. Chen, "Long-cavity Fabry–Perot laser amplifier transmitter with enhanced injection-locking bandwidth for WDM-PON application," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2925-2932 (2010).

G.-R. Lin, H. L. Wang, G. C. Lin, Y. H. Huang, Y. H. Lin, T. K. Cheng, "Comparison on injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode with front-facet reflectivity of 1% and 30% for optical data transmission in WDM-PON system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 830-841 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (6)

G.-R. Lin, Y. C. Chi, Y. S. Liao, H. C. Kuo, Z. W. Liao, H. L. Wang, G. C. Lin, "A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission," Opt. Exp. 20, 13622-13635 (2012).

H. Bao, W. Shieh, "Transmission simulation of coherent OOFDM signals in WDM systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 4410-4418 (2007).

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, C. L. Pan, S. Chi, "WDM extended reach passive optical networks using QAM-OFDM," Opt. Exp. 16, 12096-12101 (2008).

K. Kikuchi, "Analyses of wavelength- and polarization-division multiplexed transmission characteristics of optical quadrature-amplitude-modulation signals," Opt. Exp. 19, 17985-17995 (2011).

Y.-C. Chang, Y.-H. Lin, J. Chen, G.-R. Lin, "All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode at unlasing condition," Opt. Exp. 12, 4449-4456 (2004).

Y.-S. Liao, H.-C. Kuo, Y.-J. Chen, G.-R. Lin, "Side-mode transmission diagnosis of a multichannel selectable injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode with anti-reflection coated front facet," Opt. Exp. 17, 4859-4867 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

J. Zeng, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, "Five-subcarrier multiplexed 64-QAM transmission over a 50-µm core diameter graded index perfluorinated polymer optical fiber," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OWB4.

Y. Tang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "107 Gb/s CO-OFDM transmission with inline chromatic dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OWW3.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995).

V. J. Urick, J. X. Qiu, J. L. Dexter, K. J. Williams, F. Bucholtz, C. McDermitt, "Giga-symbol-per-second 16-QAM transmission over a single-channel Raman-amplified 100 km link," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2003) Paper ThM2.

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