Abstract

In the field of silicon photonics, it has only recently become possible to build complex systems. As system power constraints and complexity increase, design margins will decrease—making understanding device noise performance and device-specific noise origins increasingly necessary. We demonstrate a waveguide-coupled germanium metal–semiconductor–metal photodetector exhibiting photoconductive gain with a responsivity of 1.76 A/W at 5 V bias and 10.6 ± 0.96 fF capacitance. Our measurements indicate that a significant portion of the dark current is not associated with the generation of shot noise. The noise elbow at 5 V bias is measured to be approximately 150 MHz and the high-frequency detector noise reaches the Johnson noise floor.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. E. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. L. Roux, D. Pascal, S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9843-9848 (2007).
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  3. R. Soref, "The past, present and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
  4. L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon," Opt. Exp. 17, 7901-7906 (2009).
  5. S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector," Opt. Exp. 18, 4986-4999 (2010).
  6. C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, P. S. Davids, "Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current," Opt. Exp. 19, 24897-24904 (2011).
  7. L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fédéli, "Zero-bias 40 Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon," Opt. Exp. 20, 1096-1101 (2012).
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2012 (1)

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fédéli, "Zero-bias 40 Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon," Opt. Exp. 20, 1096-1101 (2012).

2011 (1)

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, P. S. Davids, "Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current," Opt. Exp. 19, 24897-24904 (2011).

2010 (3)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector," Opt. Exp. 18, 4986-4999 (2010).

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, "Towards fabless silicon photonics," Nat. Photon. 4, 49-494 (2010).

S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, "Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects," Nature 464, 80-84 (2010).

2009 (1)

L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon," Opt. Exp. 17, 7901-7906 (2009).

2008 (1)

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Rouviere, J.-F. Damlencourt, L. E. Melhaoui, X. L. Roux, P. Crozat, J. Mangeney, E. Cassan, S. Laval, "Metal-semiconductor-metal Ge photodetectors integrated in silicon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151114-1-151114-3 (2008).

2007 (1)

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. E. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. L. Roux, D. Pascal, S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9843-9848 (2007).

2006 (1)

R. Soref, "The past, present and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

1967 (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Rouviere, J.-F. Damlencourt, L. E. Melhaoui, X. L. Roux, P. Crozat, J. Mangeney, E. Cassan, S. Laval, "Metal-semiconductor-metal Ge photodetectors integrated in silicon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151114-1-151114-3 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, "The past, present and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

Nat. Photon. (1)

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, "Towards fabless silicon photonics," Nat. Photon. 4, 49-494 (2010).

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, "Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects," Nature 464, 80-84 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (2)

L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon," Opt. Exp. 17, 7901-7906 (2009).

C. T. DeRose, D. C. Trotter, W. A. Zortman, A. L. Starbuck, M. Fisher, M. R. Watts, P. S. Davids, "Ultra compact 45 GHz CMOS compatible Germanium waveguide photodiode with low dark current," Opt. Exp. 19, 24897-24904 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (3)

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fédéli, "Zero-bias 40 Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon," Opt. Exp. 20, 1096-1101 (2012).

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector," Opt. Exp. 18, 4986-4999 (2010).

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. E. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. L. Roux, D. Pascal, S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9843-9848 (2007).

Other (11)

H. L. Hartnagel, R. Katilius, A. Matulionis, Microwave Noise in Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2001).

W. F. Egan, Practical RF System Design (Wiley, 2000).

Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Noise Figure Measurements Agilent http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5952-8255E.pdf.

http://opsisfoundry.org/.

https://www.ime.astar.edu.sg/page/multiple_project_wafer__mpw__services.

L. Colace, A. Scacchi, G. Assanto, "Noise characterization of Ge/Si photodetectors," Proc. 8th IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. (2011) pp. 290-292.

B. Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, J. Li, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, L. He, A. Novack, A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, M. Hochberg, "A high-speed silicon photonics platform," Proc. IEEE Photon. Conf. (2011) pp. 1-2.

M. Levinshtein, G. S. Simin, Getting to Know Semiconductors (World Scientific, 1992).

S. M. Sze, K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007).

D. A. Neamen, Semiconductor Physics and Devices (McGraw-Hill, 2007).

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