Empowered by the optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (O-OFDM) technology, flexible online service provisioning can be realized with dynamic routing, modulation, and spectrum assignment (RMSA). In this paper, we propose several online service provisioning algorithms that incorporate dynamic RMSA with a hybrid single-/multi-path routing (HSMR) scheme. We investigate two types of HSMR schemes, namely HSMR using online path computation (HSMR-OPC) and HSMR using fixed path sets (HSMR-FPS). Moreover, for HSMR-FPS, we analyze several path selection policies to optimize the design. We evaluate the proposed algorithms with numerical simulations using a Poisson traffic model and two mesh network topologies. The simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed HSMR schemes can effectively reduce the bandwidth blocking probability (BBP) of dynamic RMSA, as compared to two benchmark algorithms that use single-path routing and split spectrum. Our simulation results suggest that HSMR-OPC can achieve the lowest BBP among all HSMR schemes. This is attributed to the fact that HSMR-OPC optimizes routing paths for each request on the fly with considerations of both bandwidth utilizations and lengths of links. Our simulation results also indicate that the HSMR-FPS scheme that use the largest slots-over-square-of-hops first path-selection policy obtains the lowest BBP among all HSMR-FPS schemes. We then investigate the proposed algorithms' impacts on other network performance metrics, including network throughput and network bandwidth fragmentation ratio. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to consider dynamic RMSA based on both online path computation and offline path computation with various path selection policies for multipath provisioning in O-OFDM networks.
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