Abstract

In flexi-grid optical networks, fragmentation of spectrum resources may significantly affect the overall network efficiency. Effective techniques for defragmentation (i.e., re-optimization) are then required to limit the wasting of spectrum resources. However, current defragmentation techniques can only be implemented thanks to the presence of additional resources, such as spare expensive transponders. In this study, we propose, discuss and evaluate a novel defragmentation technique called push-pull. The technique is based on dynamic lightpath frequency retuning upon proper reconfiguration of allocated spectrum resources. It does not require additional transponders and does not determine traffic disruption. All the relevant technological limitations that may affect the push-pull applicability are discussed in the context of both optically-amplified direct and coherent detection systems. The technique is then successfully demonstrated in two different flexi-grid network testbeds, reproducing the two aforementioned scenarios. In particular, the reoptimization of a 10 Gb/s OOK lightpath is safely completed in few seconds (mainly due just to node configuration latencies) without experiencing any traffic disruption. Similarly, the push-pull is successfully performed on a 100 Gb/s PM-QPSK lightpath, providing no traffic disruption.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, P. Castoldi, "Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC Conf. (2012).
  2. F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, G. Berrettini, M. Secondini, F. Fresi, G. Meloni, N. Sambo, L. Poti, P. Castoldi, "Experimenting push-pull defragmentation in flexible optical networks with direct detection," Proc. Globecom Conf. (2012).
  3. F. Zhang, X. Zi, O. Gonzales de Dios, R. Casellas, "Requirements for GMPLS control of flexible grids," IETF, Draft-Zhang-Ccamp-Flexible-Grid-Requirements-01 (2011).
  4. M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, 138-145 (2010).
  5. N. Sambo, M. Secondini, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, F. Cavaliere, P. Castoldi, "Modeling and distributed provisioning in 10-40-100-Gb/s multirate wavelength switched optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1248-1257 (2011).
  6. N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, "Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks," IEEE Comm. Mag. 50, 66-72 (2012).
  7. T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, M. Jinno, "Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation," Proc. ECOC (2011).
  8. O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, S. Yoo, "Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?," IEEE Comm. Mag. 50, s12-s20 (2012).
  9. A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, T. Wang, "Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks," Proc. OFC (2011).
  10. M. Saad, Z.-Q. Luo, "Reconfiguration with no service disruption in multifiber WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. (2005).
  11. T. Miyamura, T. Kurimoto, R. Hayashi, I. Inoue, K. Shiomoto, S. Urushidani, "Demonstration of pce-controlled dynamic traffic engineering for gmpls-based multilayer service network," Proc. ECOC (2005).
  12. A. Kadohata, A. Hirano, M. Fukutoku, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, O. Ishida, "Multi-layer greenfield re-grooming with wavelength defragmentation," IEEE Comm. Lett. PP, 1-3 (2012).
  13. X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, X. Lin, "Spectrum compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).
  14. L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, V. Lopez, G. Junyent, "Elastic spectrum allocation for variable traffic in flexible-grid optical networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).
  15. F. Fresi, M. Scaffardi, N. Amaya, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, A. Bogoni, "40-Gb/s NRZ-to-RZ and OOK-to-BPSK format and wavelength conversion on a single SOA-MZI for gridless networking operations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2012).
  16. K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. Geisler, S. Chang, B. Yoo, "Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks," Proc.ECOC (2011).
  17. D. Awduche, L. Berger, RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels (2001).
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  19. "Micro integrable tunable laser assembly implementation agreement," OIF-MicroITLA-01.0, Optical Internetworking Forum, OIF (2011).
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  21. P. A. Humblet, M. Azizõglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1576-1582 (1991).
  22. "Interfaces for the optical transport network (otn)," ITU-T Recommendation G.709 (2009).
  23. G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Robust multilevel coherent optical systems with linear processing at the receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2357-2369 (2009).
  24. U. Mengali, A. N. D'Andrea, Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers (Plenum Press, 1997).
  25. R. Schober, W. H. Gerstacker, "Metric for noncoherent sequence estimation," IEE Electron. Lett. 35, 2178-2179 (1999).

2012 (5)

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, "Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks," IEEE Comm. Mag. 50, 66-72 (2012).

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, S. Yoo, "Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?," IEEE Comm. Mag. 50, s12-s20 (2012).

A. Kadohata, A. Hirano, M. Fukutoku, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, O. Ishida, "Multi-layer greenfield re-grooming with wavelength defragmentation," IEEE Comm. Lett. PP, 1-3 (2012).

F. Fresi, M. Scaffardi, N. Amaya, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, A. Bogoni, "40-Gb/s NRZ-to-RZ and OOK-to-BPSK format and wavelength conversion on a single SOA-MZI for gridless networking operations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2012).

F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Poti, P. Castoldi, "Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 727-733 (2012).

2011 (3)

"Micro integrable tunable laser assembly implementation agreement," OIF-MicroITLA-01.0, Optical Internetworking Forum, OIF (2011).

N. Sambo, M. Secondini, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, F. Cavaliere, P. Castoldi, "Modeling and distributed provisioning in 10-40-100-Gb/s multirate wavelength switched optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1248-1257 (2011).

F. Zhang, X. Zi, O. Gonzales de Dios, R. Casellas, "Requirements for GMPLS control of flexible grids," IETF, Draft-Zhang-Ccamp-Flexible-Grid-Requirements-01 (2011).

2010 (1)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, 138-145 (2010).

2009 (2)

"Interfaces for the optical transport network (otn)," ITU-T Recommendation G.709 (2009).

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Robust multilevel coherent optical systems with linear processing at the receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2357-2369 (2009).

2008 (1)

"Integrable tunable laser assembly MSA," OIF-ITLA-MSA-01.2, Optical Internetworking Forum, OIF (2008).

2005 (1)

M. Saad, Z.-Q. Luo, "Reconfiguration with no service disruption in multifiber WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. (2005).

2001 (1)

D. Awduche, L. Berger, RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels (2001).

1999 (1)

R. Schober, W. H. Gerstacker, "Metric for noncoherent sequence estimation," IEE Electron. Lett. 35, 2178-2179 (1999).

1991 (1)

P. A. Humblet, M. Azizõglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1576-1582 (1991).

IEE Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Schober, W. H. Gerstacker, "Metric for noncoherent sequence estimation," IEE Electron. Lett. 35, 2178-2179 (1999).

IEEE Comm. Mag. (1)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, 138-145 (2010).

IEEE Comm. Lett. (1)

A. Kadohata, A. Hirano, M. Fukutoku, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, O. Ishida, "Multi-layer greenfield re-grooming with wavelength defragmentation," IEEE Comm. Lett. PP, 1-3 (2012).

IEEE Comm. Mag. (2)

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, "Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks," IEEE Comm. Mag. 50, 66-72 (2012).

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, S. Yoo, "Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?," IEEE Comm. Mag. 50, s12-s20 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Fresi, M. Scaffardi, N. Amaya, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, A. Bogoni, "40-Gb/s NRZ-to-RZ and OOK-to-BPSK format and wavelength conversion on a single SOA-MZI for gridless networking operations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2012).

IETF, Draft-Zhang-Ccamp-Flexible-Grid-Requirements-01 (1)

F. Zhang, X. Zi, O. Gonzales de Dios, R. Casellas, "Requirements for GMPLS control of flexible grids," IETF, Draft-Zhang-Ccamp-Flexible-Grid-Requirements-01 (2011).

ITU-T Recommendation G.709 (1)

"Interfaces for the optical transport network (otn)," ITU-T Recommendation G.709 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

P. A. Humblet, M. Azizõglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1576-1582 (1991).

M. Saad, Z.-Q. Luo, "Reconfiguration with no service disruption in multifiber WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

N. Sambo, M. Secondini, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, F. Cavaliere, P. Castoldi, "Modeling and distributed provisioning in 10-40-100-Gb/s multirate wavelength switched optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1248-1257 (2011).

F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Poti, P. Castoldi, "Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 727-733 (2012).

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Robust multilevel coherent optical systems with linear processing at the receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2357-2369 (2009).

OIF-ITLA-MSA-01.2, Optical Internetworking Forum, OIF (1)

"Integrable tunable laser assembly MSA," OIF-ITLA-MSA-01.2, Optical Internetworking Forum, OIF (2008).

OIF-MicroITLA-01.0, Optical Internetworking Forum, OIF (1)

"Micro integrable tunable laser assembly implementation agreement," OIF-MicroITLA-01.0, Optical Internetworking Forum, OIF (2011).

RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels (1)

D. Awduche, L. Berger, RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels (2001).

Other (9)

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. Geisler, S. Chang, B. Yoo, "Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks," Proc.ECOC (2011).

T. Miyamura, T. Kurimoto, R. Hayashi, I. Inoue, K. Shiomoto, S. Urushidani, "Demonstration of pce-controlled dynamic traffic engineering for gmpls-based multilayer service network," Proc. ECOC (2005).

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, X. Lin, "Spectrum compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, V. Lopez, G. Junyent, "Elastic spectrum allocation for variable traffic in flexible-grid optical networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, P. Castoldi, "Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC Conf. (2012).

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, G. Berrettini, M. Secondini, F. Fresi, G. Meloni, N. Sambo, L. Poti, P. Castoldi, "Experimenting push-pull defragmentation in flexible optical networks with direct detection," Proc. Globecom Conf. (2012).

A. Patel, P. Ji, J. Jue, T. Wang, "Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks," Proc. OFC (2011).

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, M. Jinno, "Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation," Proc. ECOC (2011).

U. Mengali, A. N. D'Andrea, Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers (Plenum Press, 1997).

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