Abstract

The most common optical amplified spontaneous emission sources can become the ultimate tools for the generation of ultra-broadband truly random bit sequences (TRBS). By using a straightforward configuration we experimentally prove that the amplified spontaneous emission noise of an optical amplifier—either an Er<sup>+3</sup>-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) or an InGaAs semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)—is an efficient source for TRBS generation. A bit rate up to 560 Gb/s has been recorded, seeded by the direct detection of the unfiltered spontaneous-spontaneous (<i>sp-sp</i>) optical intensity beat noise on a broadband photoreceiver. The generation rate is practically limited only by the detection bandwidth, the electronic digitization process and the post-processing circuitry. The proposed mechanism passes the existing benchmarks of randomness.

© 2012 IEEE

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2011 (1)

2010 (7)

2009 (2)

J.-L. Danger, S. Guilley, P. Hoogvorst, "High speed true random number generator based on open loop structures in FPGAs," Microelectron. J. 40, 1650-1656 (2009).

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, I. Kanter, "Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 1-4 (2009).

2008 (4)

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109-1-031109-3 (2008).

C. Tokunaga, D. Blaauw, T. Mudge, "True random number generator with a metastability-based quality control," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 78-85 (2008).

T. E. Murphy, R. Roy, "Chaotic lasers: The world's fastest dice," Nature Photon. 2, 714-715 (2008).

A. Uchida, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Photon. 2, 728-732 (2008).

2003 (1)

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, M. Varanouvo, "A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a smart card IC," IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403-409 (2003).

2002 (1)

J. T. Gleeson, "Truly random number generator based on turbulent electroconvection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1949-1951 (2002).

2001 (2)

T. Stojanovski, L. Kocarev, "Chaos-based random number generators—Part I: Analysis," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 48, 281-288 (2001).

T. Stojanovski, J. Pihl, L. Kocarev, "Chaos-based random number generators—Part II: Practical realization," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 48, 382-385 (2001).

1997 (1)

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, A. B. Dowlatabadi, "An integrated analog/digital random noise source," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 44, 521-528 (1997).

1994 (1)

D. M. Baney, W. V. Sorin, S. A. Newton, "High-frequency photodiode characterization using a filtered intensity noise technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1258-1260 (1994).

1990 (1)

E. Eichen, J. Schlafer, W. Rideout, J. McCabe, "Wide-bandwidth receiver/photodetector frequency response measurements using amplified spontaneous emission from a semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 912-915 (1990).

1989 (2)

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1071-1082 (1989).

W. Rideout, E. Eichen, J. Schlafer, J. Lacourse, E. Meland, "Relative intensity noise in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 438-440 (1989).

1984 (1)

M. J. Mahoney, "Semiconductor laser optical amplifiers for use in future fiber systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 531-544 (1984).

1982 (1)

T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, "Noise in an AlGa Assemiconductor laser amplifier," J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 564-575 (1982).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. T. Gleeson, "Truly random number generator based on turbulent electroconvection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1949-1951 (2002).

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, "A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109-1-031109-3 (2008).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

C. Tokunaga, D. Blaauw, T. Mudge, "True random number generator with a metastability-based quality control," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 78-85 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

W. Rideout, E. Eichen, J. Schlafer, J. Lacourse, E. Meland, "Relative intensity noise in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 438-440 (1989).

D. M. Baney, W. V. Sorin, S. A. Newton, "High-frequency photodiode characterization using a filtered intensity noise technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1258-1260 (1994).

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I (3)

T. Stojanovski, L. Kocarev, "Chaos-based random number generators—Part I: Analysis," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 48, 281-288 (2001).

T. Stojanovski, J. Pihl, L. Kocarev, "Chaos-based random number generators—Part II: Practical realization," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 48, 382-385 (2001).

W. T. Holman, J. A. Connelly, A. B. Dowlatabadi, "An integrated analog/digital random noise source," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 44, 521-528 (1997).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

M. Bucci, L. Germani, R. Luzzi, A. Trifiletti, M. Varanouvo, "A high-speed oscillator-based truly random number source for cryptographic applications on a smart card IC," IEEE Trans. Comput. 52, 403-409 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1071-1082 (1989).

E. Eichen, J. Schlafer, W. Rideout, J. McCabe, "Wide-bandwidth receiver/photodetector frequency response measurements using amplified spontaneous emission from a semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 912-915 (1990).

M. J. Mahoney, "Semiconductor laser optical amplifiers for use in future fiber systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 531-544 (1984).

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, "Noise in an AlGa Assemiconductor laser amplifier," J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 564-575 (1982).

Microelectron. J. (1)

J.-L. Danger, S. Guilley, P. Hoogvorst, "High speed true random number generator based on open loop structures in FPGAs," Microelectron. J. 40, 1650-1656 (2009).

Nature Photon. (3)

I. Kanter, Y. Aviad, I. Reidler, E. Cohen, M. Rosenbluh, "An optical ultrafast random bit generator," Nature Photon. 4, 58-61 (2010).

T. E. Murphy, R. Roy, "Chaotic lasers: The world's fastest dice," Nature Photon. 2, 714-715 (2008).

A. Uchida, "Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers," Nature Photon. 2, 728-732 (2008).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. Guo, W. Tang, Y. Liu, W. Wei, "Truly random number generation based on measurement of phase noise of a laser," Phys. Rev. E 81, 051137-1-051137-4 (2010).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, I. Kanter, "Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 1-4 (2009).

Other (5)

J. T. Kringlebotn, K. Blotekjaer, C. N. Pannell, "Field statistics modeling of beat noise in an optical amplifier," Proc. Optoelectron (1994) pp. 185-190.

A. Rukhin, "A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications," (2010) NIST Special Publication 800-22, Revision 1a.

G. Marsaglia, "DIEHARD: A battery of tests of randomness," (1995.) http://www.stat.fsu.edu/pub/diehard/..

J. E. Gentle, Random Number Generation and Monte Carlo Methods (Springer, 2003).

N. Ferguson, B. Schneier, Practical Cryptography (Wiley, 2003).

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