Abstract

This paper presents a modification of the refractive-index (RI) response of an intermodal interferometer based on photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using a thin plasma-deposited silicon nitride (SiN<sub>x</sub>) overlay with a high refractive index. We show that the film overlay can effectively change the distribution of the cladding modes and thus tune the RI sensitivity of the interferometer. Thanks to the nano-coating we were able to increase the RI sensitivity eightfold in the range required for biosensors (n<sub>D</sub> ~1.33). Due to the extreme hardness of SiN<sub>x</sub> films and their excellent adhesion to the fiber surface, we believe that after the film deposition the device will still maintain its advantages, i.e., lack of degradation over time or with temperature.

© 2011 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, B. H. Lee, "All-fiber Mach–Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 5711-5720 (2007).
  2. W. J. Bock, T. A. Eftimov, P. Mikulic, J. Chen, "An inline core-cladding intermodal interferometer using a photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3933-3939 (2009).
  3. R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, V. Pruneri, "Refractometry based on a photonic crystal fiber interferometer," Opt. Lett. 34, 617-619 (2009).
  4. J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, V. Pruneri, "Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers," J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).
  5. Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, Y. Yu, "A cascaded photonic crystal fiber Mach Zehnder interferometer formed by extra electric arc discharges," Appl. Phys. B 102, 595-599 (2010).
  6. J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Exp. 15, 1491-1496 (2007).
  7. M. E. Bosch, A. J. R. Sanchez, F. S. Rojas, C. B. Ojeda, "Recent development in optical fiber biosensors," Sensors 7, 797-859 (2007).
  8. F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, J. M. Corres, I. Del Villar, J. Goicoechea, C. R. Zamarreno, M. Hernaez, R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber sensors based on layer-by-layer nanostructured films," Procedia Eng. 5, 1087-1090 (2010).
  9. M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, J. Szmidt, G. R. Pickrell, "Nanocoating enhanced optical fiber sensors," Ceramic Trans. 222, 275-286 (2010).
  10. M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. Dudek, P. Niedzielski, "Optical properties of diamond-like cladding for optical fibres," Diamond Related Mater. 13, 954-957 (2004).
  11. M. Smietana, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, G. R. Pickrell, J. Szmidt, "Refractive index sensing of fiber optic long-period grating structures coated with a plasma deposited diamond-like carbon thin film," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 085301 (2008).
  12. M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, J. Chen, "Pressure sensing in high-refractive-index liquids using long-period gratings nanocoated with silicon nitride," Sensors 10, 11301-11310 (2010).
  13. L. Martinu, D. Poitras, "Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).
  14. M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, J. Szmidt, "Evolution of optical properties with deposition time of silicon nitride and diamond-like carbon films deposited by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method," Thin Solid Films 519, 6339-6343 (2011).
  15. K. N. Park, K. S. Lee, "Improved effective-index method for analysis of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 958-960 (2005).
  16. D. F. G. Gallagher, T. P. Felici, "Eigenmode expansion methods for simulation of optical propagation in photonics—Pros and cons," Proc. SPIE (2003) pp. 69.

2011

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, J. Szmidt, "Evolution of optical properties with deposition time of silicon nitride and diamond-like carbon films deposited by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method," Thin Solid Films 519, 6339-6343 (2011).

2010

Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, Y. Yu, "A cascaded photonic crystal fiber Mach Zehnder interferometer formed by extra electric arc discharges," Appl. Phys. B 102, 595-599 (2010).

F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, J. M. Corres, I. Del Villar, J. Goicoechea, C. R. Zamarreno, M. Hernaez, R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber sensors based on layer-by-layer nanostructured films," Procedia Eng. 5, 1087-1090 (2010).

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, J. Szmidt, G. R. Pickrell, "Nanocoating enhanced optical fiber sensors," Ceramic Trans. 222, 275-286 (2010).

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, J. Chen, "Pressure sensing in high-refractive-index liquids using long-period gratings nanocoated with silicon nitride," Sensors 10, 11301-11310 (2010).

2009

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, V. Pruneri, "Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers," J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).

W. J. Bock, T. A. Eftimov, P. Mikulic, J. Chen, "An inline core-cladding intermodal interferometer using a photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3933-3939 (2009).

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, V. Pruneri, "Refractometry based on a photonic crystal fiber interferometer," Opt. Lett. 34, 617-619 (2009).

2008

M. Smietana, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, G. R. Pickrell, J. Szmidt, "Refractive index sensing of fiber optic long-period grating structures coated with a plasma deposited diamond-like carbon thin film," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 085301 (2008).

2007

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Exp. 15, 1491-1496 (2007).

M. E. Bosch, A. J. R. Sanchez, F. S. Rojas, C. B. Ojeda, "Recent development in optical fiber biosensors," Sensors 7, 797-859 (2007).

H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, B. H. Lee, "All-fiber Mach–Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 5711-5720 (2007).

2005

2004

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. Dudek, P. Niedzielski, "Optical properties of diamond-like cladding for optical fibres," Diamond Related Mater. 13, 954-957 (2004).

2000

L. Martinu, D. Poitras, "Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).

Appl. Phys. B

Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, Y. Yu, "A cascaded photonic crystal fiber Mach Zehnder interferometer formed by extra electric arc discharges," Appl. Phys. B 102, 595-599 (2010).

Ceramic Trans.

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, J. Szmidt, G. R. Pickrell, "Nanocoating enhanced optical fiber sensors," Ceramic Trans. 222, 275-286 (2010).

Diamond Related Mater.

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. Dudek, P. Niedzielski, "Optical properties of diamond-like cladding for optical fibres," Diamond Related Mater. 13, 954-957 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol.

W. J. Bock, T. A. Eftimov, P. Mikulic, J. Chen, "An inline core-cladding intermodal interferometer using a photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3933-3939 (2009).

J. Sens.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Badenes, V. Pruneri, "Highly sensitive sensors based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometers," J. Sens. 2009, 747803 (2009).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

L. Martinu, D. Poitras, "Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2619-2645 (2000).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

M. Smietana, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, G. R. Pickrell, J. Szmidt, "Refractive index sensing of fiber optic long-period grating structures coated with a plasma deposited diamond-like carbon thin film," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 085301 (2008).

Opt. Exp.

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Exp. 15, 1491-1496 (2007).

H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, B. H. Lee, "All-fiber Mach–Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 5711-5720 (2007).

Opt. Lett.

Procedia Eng.

F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, J. M. Corres, I. Del Villar, J. Goicoechea, C. R. Zamarreno, M. Hernaez, R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber sensors based on layer-by-layer nanostructured films," Procedia Eng. 5, 1087-1090 (2010).

Sensors

M. E. Bosch, A. J. R. Sanchez, F. S. Rojas, C. B. Ojeda, "Recent development in optical fiber biosensors," Sensors 7, 797-859 (2007).

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, J. Chen, "Pressure sensing in high-refractive-index liquids using long-period gratings nanocoated with silicon nitride," Sensors 10, 11301-11310 (2010).

Thin Solid Films

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, J. Szmidt, "Evolution of optical properties with deposition time of silicon nitride and diamond-like carbon films deposited by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method," Thin Solid Films 519, 6339-6343 (2011).

Other

D. F. G. Gallagher, T. P. Felici, "Eigenmode expansion methods for simulation of optical propagation in photonics—Pros and cons," Proc. SPIE (2003) pp. 69.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.