Abstract

We investigate a periodically micro-tapered fiber grating for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature. The fundamental core mode can be coupled to the cladding mode by tapering a single-mode fiber periodically, which results to the resonant wavelength. The coupling strength is directly proportional to the number of micro-tapered regions in the cladding. The transmission characteristics of the periodically micro-tapered fiber grating are measured as strain or temperature is changed. The resonant wavelength is shifted to shorter wavelengths and the transmission is reduced as the applied strain increases. However, as the applied temperature increases, the resonant wavelength is shifted to longer wavelengths and the transmission is also diminished. Consequently, it is possible to effectively discriminate concurrent sensitivities between strain and temperature by measuring the resonant wavelength shift and the transmission variation of the periodically micro-tapered fiber grating.

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
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  4. T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Detection of the organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long period fiber grating optical sensor," Opt. Commun. 191, 181-190 (2001).
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  7. Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).
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  14. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO$_{2}$ laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).
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  20. Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_2$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).
  21. W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, B. Culshaw, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis," Opt. Eng. 36, 598-609 (1997).

2009 (1)

H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, "CO$_{2}$ laser writing of long-period fiber grating in photonic crystal fiber under tension," Opt. Exp. 17, 4533-4539 (2009).

2008 (2)

L. Y. Shao, J. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, S. He, "Long-period grating fabricated by periodically tapering standard single-mode fiber," Appl. Opt. 47, 1549-1552 (2008).

D. Nodop, S. Linke, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, L. Rindorf, "Long period gratings written in large-mode area photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 92, 509-512 (2008).

2006 (1)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).

2005 (1)

G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain based on arc-induced long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 41, 60-62 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, B. H. Lee, "Tunable fiber gratings fabricated in photonic crystal fiber by use of mechanical pressure," Opt. Lett. 29, 331-333 (2004).

Y. G. Han, J. H. Lee, S. B. Lee, "Discrimination of bending and temperature sensitivities with phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings depending on initial coupling strength," Opt. Exp. 12, 3024-3028 (2004).

2003 (3)

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_2$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Detection of the organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long period fiber grating optical sensor," Opt. Commun. 191, 181-190 (2001).

C. Y. Lin, L. A. Wang, "Corrugated long-period fiber gatings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1159-1168 (2001).

1999 (2)

S. A. Vasilev, E. M. Dianov, O. I. Medvedkov, V. N. Protopopov, D. M. Costantini, A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, "Properties of the cladding modes of an optical fibre excited by refractive-index gratings," Quantum. Electron. 29, 65-68 (1999).

V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Exp. 4, 457-466 (1999).

1998 (1)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO$_{2}$ laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).

1997 (2)

V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, D. Sherr, T. G. D'Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, "Temperature-insensitive and strain insensitive long-period grating sensors for smart structures," Opt. Eng. 36, 1872-1876 (1997).

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, B. Culshaw, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis," Opt. Eng. 36, 598-609 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

1965 (1)

I. H. Malitson, "Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica," J. Opt Soc. Amer. 55, 1205-1208 (1965).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Nodop, S. Linke, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, L. Rindorf, "Long period gratings written in large-mode area photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 92, 509-512 (2008).

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO$_{2}$ laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).

G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, H. M. Salgado, J. L. Santos, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain based on arc-induced long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 41, 60-62 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_2$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

C. Y. Lin, L. A. Wang, "Corrugated long-period fiber gatings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1159-1168 (2001).

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

J. Opt Soc. Amer. (1)

I. H. Malitson, "Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica," J. Opt Soc. Amer. 55, 1205-1208 (1965).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Detection of the organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long period fiber grating optical sensor," Opt. Commun. 191, 181-190 (2001).

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).

Opt. Eng. (2)

V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, D. Sherr, T. G. D'Alberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, "Temperature-insensitive and strain insensitive long-period grating sensors for smart structures," Opt. Eng. 36, 1872-1876 (1997).

W. Jin, W. C. Michie, G. Thursby, M. Konstantaki, B. Culshaw, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature: Error analysis," Opt. Eng. 36, 598-609 (1997).

Opt. Exp. (3)

V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Exp. 4, 457-466 (1999).

H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, "CO$_{2}$ laser writing of long-period fiber grating in photonic crystal fiber under tension," Opt. Exp. 17, 4533-4539 (2009).

Y. G. Han, J. H. Lee, S. B. Lee, "Discrimination of bending and temperature sensitivities with phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings depending on initial coupling strength," Opt. Exp. 12, 3024-3028 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Quantum. Electron. (1)

S. A. Vasilev, E. M. Dianov, O. I. Medvedkov, V. N. Protopopov, D. M. Costantini, A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, "Properties of the cladding modes of an optical fibre excited by refractive-index gratings," Quantum. Electron. 29, 65-68 (1999).

Other (1)

R. Kashyap, Fibre Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).

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