Abstract

Fiber grating laser sensors have been attracting great interest because of their high signal-to-noise ratio and narrow linewidth that permit high resolution sensing. According to the working principle, fiber grating laser sensors can be classified into two types: wavelength encoding sensor and polarimetric heterodyning sensor. The former responds to external perturbations in terms of shift in the operation wavelength of the fiber laser, which is similar to that of fiber grating sensor. The latter converts measurand into change in beat frequency between the two orthogonal polarization modes from the fiber laser. The polarimetric fiber grating laser sensor not only has almost all advantages of passive fiber grating sensors, but also has a distinctive advantage of ease of interrogation. This is because the beat frequency is in the RF domain, which avoids the employment of expensive wavelength measurement devices. This type of sensor has been demonstrated for measurement of temperature, axial strain, lateral force, hydrostatic pressure, bending, displacement, acceleration, electric current, and acoustic and ultrasonic signal. In this paper, we review the principle, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of the polarimetric heterodyning fiber grating laser sensors, and the sensor multiplexing in the RF domain.

© 2011 IEEE

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2011 (5)

Y. N. Tan, Y. Zhang, L. Jin, B. O. Guan, "Simultaneous strain and temperature fiber grating laser sensor based on radio-frequency measurement," Opt. Exp. 19, 20650-20656 (2011).

T. Guo, A. C. L. Wong, W. Liu, B. O. Guan, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, "Beat-frequency adjustable Er$^{3 +}$ -doped DBR fiber laser for ultrasound detection," Opt. Exp. 19, 2485-2492 (2011).

Y. N. Tan, Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, "Hydrostatic pressure insensitive dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone," IEEE Sensors J. 11, 1169-1172 (2011).

Y. Zhang, Y. N. Tan, T. Guo, B. O. Guan, "Beat frequency trimming of dual-polarization fiber grating lasers for multiplexed sensor applications," Opt. Exp. 19, 218-223 (2011).

L. He, S. K. Ozdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, L. Yang, "Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers," Nature Nanotechnology 6, 428-432 (2011).

2010 (5)

W. Liu, T. Guo, A. C. L. Wong, H. Y. Tam, S. He, "Highly sensitive bending sensor based on Er$^{3+}$-doped DBR fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 18, 17834-17840 (2010).

B. O. Guan, S. N. Wang, "Fiber grating laser current sensor based on magnetic force," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 230-232 (2010).

Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, X. Chen, "Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3403-3408 (2010).

S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Gao, X. Chen, J. Cheng, "Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser for strain measurement," Opt. Lett. 35, 835-837 (2010).

E. Chehura, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "A simple and wavelength-flexible procedure for fabricating phase-shifted fibre Bragg gratings," Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, (2010) Art. No. 094001.

2009 (6)

H. Zhang, J. Luo, B. Liu, S. Wang, C. Jia, X. Ma, "Polarimetric multilongitudinal-mode distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for strain measurement," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 2559-2563 (2009).

A. Rosales-Garcia, T. F. Morse, J. Hernandez-Cordero, M. S. Unlu, "Single polarization-mode-beating frequency fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 537-539 (2009).

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, "Ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser for sensing applications," Opt. Exp. 17, 10050-10055 (2009).

B. O. Guan, Y. N. Tan, H. Y. Tam, "Dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone," Opt. Exp. 17, 19544-19550 (2009).

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, "High-sensitivity distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser displacement sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 280-282 (2009).

S. T. Lau, L. Y. Shao, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, C. H. Hu, H. H. Kim, R. Liu, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, "Characterization of a 40-MHz focused transducer with a fiber grating laser hydrophone," IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 55, 2714-2718 (2009).

2008 (5)

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, S. He, "High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 548-550 (2008).

B. Culshaw, A. Kersey, "Fiber-optic sensing: A historical perspective," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1064-1078 (2008).

G. A. Cranch, G. Flockhart, C. K. Kirkendall, "Distributed feedback fiber laser strain sensors," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1161-1172 (2008).

B. O. Guan, Y. Zhang, H. J. Wang, D. Chen, H. Y. Tam, "High-temperature-resistant distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser written in Er/Yb co-doped fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 2958-2964 (2008).

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, "Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement," Opt. Commun. 281, 4619-4622 (2008).

2007 (3)

D. N. Nikogosyan, "Multi-photon high-excitation-energy approach to fibre grating inscription," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R1-R29 (2007).

N. Beverini, E. Maccioni, M. Morganti, F. Stefani, R. Falciai, C. Trono, "Fiber laser strain sensor device," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 958-962 (2007).

L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, S. He, "High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1598-1600 (2007).

2006 (3)

Y. O. Barmenkov, D. Zalvidea, S. T. Peiro, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andres, "Effective length of short Fabry–Perot cavity formed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 14, 6394-6399 (2006).

J. Canning, "Fibre lasers and related technologies," Opt. Lasers Eng. 44, 647-676 (2006).

N. Li, F. Luo, S. Unlu, T. F. Morse, J. Hernandez-Cordero, J. Battiato, D. Wang, "Intra-cavity fiber laser technique for high accuracy birefringence measurement," Opt. Exp. 14, 7594-7603 (2006).

2005 (2)

L. Xia, P. Shum, C. Lu, "Phase-shifted bandpass filter fabrication through CO$_{2}$ laser irradiation," Opt. Exp. 13, 5878-5882 (2005).

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, H. L. W. Chan, "Ultrasonic hydrophone based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 169-171 (2005).

2004 (2)

K. Bohnert, A. Frank, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, "Polarimetric fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure," Appl. Opt. 43, 41-48 (2004).

X. Feng, Y. Liu, S. Fu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, "Switchable dual-wavelength ytterbium-doped fiber laser based on a few-mode fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 762-764 (2004).

2003 (4)

R. I. Crickmore, M. J. Gunning, J. Stefanov, J. P. Dakin, "Beat frequency measurement system for multiple dual polarization fiber DFB lasers," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 115-120 (2003).

E. Chmielewska, W. U. Czyk, W. J. Bock, "Measurement of pressure and temperature sensitivities of a Bragg grating imprinted in a highly birefringent side-hole fiber," Appl. Opt. 42, 6284-6291 (2003).

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, J. Patscheider, "Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1758-1760 (2003).

R. I. Crickmore, M. J. Gunning, J. Stefanov, J. P. Dakin, "Beat frequency measurement system for multiple dual polarization fiber DFB lasers," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 115-120 (2003).

2002 (2)

Y. Zhao, Y. Liao, S. Lai, "Simultaneous measurement of down-hole high pressure and temperature with a bulk-modulus and FBG sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1584-1586 (2002).

J. Hernandez-Cordero, V. A. Kozlov, T. F. Morse, "Highly accurate method for single-mode fiber laser wavelength measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 83-85 (2002).

2001 (2)

H. Renner, "Effective-index increase, form birefringence and transition losses in UV-side-illuminated photosensitive fibers," Opt. Exp. 9, 546-560 (2001).

O. Hadeler, M. Ibsen, M. N. Zervas, "Distributed-feedback fiber laser sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements operating in the radio-frequency domain," Appl. Opt. 40, 3169-3175 (2001).

2000 (2)

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, "Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 36, 564-566 (2000).

R. Gafsi, M. A. El-Sherif, "Analysis of induced-birefringence effects on fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 299-323 (2000).

1999 (1)

1997 (4)

L. Dong, W. H. Loh, J. E. Caplen, J. D. Minelly, K. Hsu, L. Reekie, "Efficient single-frequency fiber lasers with novel photosensitive Er/Yb optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 22, 694-696 (1997).

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology: Fundamentals and overview," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

1993 (4)

1992 (1)

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, "Design of a single-mode linear-cavity erbium fiber laser utilizing Bragg reflectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1338-1343 (1992).

1990 (1)

K. S. Chiang, H. L. W. Chan, J. L. Gardner, "Detection of high-frequency ultrasound with a polarization-maintaining fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1221-1227 (1990).

1980 (1)

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (3)

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, J. P. Dakin, "Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensing," Electron. Lett. 29, 398-399 (1993).

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, "Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 36, 564-566 (2000).

W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, "1.55 micron phase-shifted distributed feedback fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 31, 440-1442 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (10)

J. Hernandez-Cordero, V. A. Kozlov, T. F. Morse, "Highly accurate method for single-mode fiber laser wavelength measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 83-85 (2002).

A. Rosales-Garcia, T. F. Morse, J. Hernandez-Cordero, M. S. Unlu, "Single polarization-mode-beating frequency fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 537-539 (2009).

Y. Zhao, Y. Liao, S. Lai, "Simultaneous measurement of down-hole high pressure and temperature with a bulk-modulus and FBG sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1584-1586 (2002).

X. Feng, Y. Liu, S. Fu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, "Switchable dual-wavelength ytterbium-doped fiber laser based on a few-mode fiber grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 762-764 (2004).

L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, S. He, "High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1598-1600 (2007).

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, J. Patscheider, "Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1758-1760 (2003).

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. T. Lau, H. L. W. Chan, "Ultrasonic hydrophone based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 169-171 (2005).

L. Y. Shao, S. T. Lau, X. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. L. W. Chan, H. Y. Tam, S. He, "High-frequency ultrasonic hydrophone based on a cladding-etched DBR fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 548-550 (2008).

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, "High-sensitivity distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser displacement sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 280-282 (2009).

B. O. Guan, S. N. Wang, "Fiber grating laser current sensor based on magnetic force," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 230-232 (2010).

IEEE Sensors J. (4)

R. I. Crickmore, M. J. Gunning, J. Stefanov, J. P. Dakin, "Beat frequency measurement system for multiple dual polarization fiber DFB lasers," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 115-120 (2003).

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