Abstract

In this work we experimentally investigate the response time of humidity sensors based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. By the use of etching with acetone we can control the poly (methyl methacrylate) based fiber in order to reduce the diffusion time of water into the polymer and hence speed up the relative wavelength change caused by humidity variations. A much improved response time of 12 minutes for humidity decrease and 7 minutes for humidity increase, has been achieved by using a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating with a reduced diameter of 135 microns.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, T. Onishi, "High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects (${<}100$ m)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 347-349 (2000).
  2. Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, P. L. Chu, "Highly tunable Bragg gratings in single-mode polymer optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 352-354 (1999).
  3. C. Emslie, "Review: Polymer optical fibers," J. Mater. Sci. 23, 2281-2293 (1988).
  4. J. Brandrup, Polymer Handbook (Wiley, 1999).
  5. D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, Polymer Fibre Bragg Gratings, in Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors: Thirty Years From Research to Market (Bentham eBooks, 2010).
  6. H. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, M. C. J. Large, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, "Continuous wave ultraviolet light-induced fiber Bragg gratings in few- and single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 3296-3298 (2005).
  7. N. G. Harbach, Fibre Bragg Gratings in Polymer Optical Fibres Ph.D. dissertation EPFLLausanneSwitzerland (2008).
  8. C. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Webb, G.-D. Peng, "Water detection in jet fuel using a polymer optical fibre Bragg grating," Proc. SPIE (2009).
  9. M. F. Choi, O. L. Tse, "Humidity-sensitive optode membrane based on a fluorescent dye immobilized in gelatin," Anal. Chim. Acta. 378, 127 (1999).
  10. A. P. Russell, K. S. Fletcher, "Optical sensor for the determination of moisture," Anal. Chim. Acta. 170, 209 (1985).
  11. A. Kharaza, B. E. Jonesa, "A distributed optical-fibre sensing system for multi-point humidity measurement," Sens. Actuators: A: Phys. 47, 491 (1995).
  12. S. Muto, O. Suzuki, T. Amano, M. Morisawa, "A plastic optical fibre sensor for real-time humidity monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 746 (2003).
  13. L. Zhang1, F. Gu, J. Lou, X. Yin, L. Tong, "Fast detection of humidity with a subwavelengthdiameter fiber taper coated with gelatin film," Opt. Exp. 16, 13349 (2008).
  14. M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, H. Groger, "Experimental investigation of a surface plasmon-based integrated-optic humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 32, 842 (1995).
  15. J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Two-layer nanocoatings in long-period fiber gratings for improved sensitivity of humidity sensors," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 394-400 (2008).
  16. B. Gu, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. Qian, S. He, "Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on FBG incorporated thin-core fiber modal interferometer," Opt. Express 19, 4140 (2011).
  17. F. Bueche, "Diffusion of water in polymethyl methacrylate," J. Polymer Sci. 14, 414 (1954).
  18. J. A. Barrie, B. Platt, "The diffusion and clustering of water vapour in polymers," Polymer 4, 303 (1963).
  19. O. V. Startsev, V. P. Rudnev, B. V. Perov, "Reversible moisture effects in the climatic ageing of organic glass," Polymer Degradation Stability 39, 373-379 (1993).
  20. A. M. Thomas, "Moisture permeability, diffusion and sorption in organic film-forming materials," J. Appl. Chem. 1, 141 (1951).
  21. T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, B. D. Powell, "Polymer-coated fibre Bragg grating for relative humidity sensing," IEEE Sensors J. 5, 1082-1089 (2005).
  22. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Clarendon Press, 1975).
  23. D. T. Turner, "Polymethyl methacrylate plus water: Sorption kinetics and volumetric changes," Polymer 23, 197-202 (1982).
  24. P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger, P. Kronenberg, "Influence of humidity and temperature on polyimide-coated fibre Bragg gratings," Proc. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibres and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals (2001).
  25. C. Zhang, W. Zhang, D. J. Webb, G.-D. Peng, "Optical fiber temperature and humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 46, 643-644 (2010).
  26. G. Wypych, Handbook of Solvents (Chem. Tec. Publishing, 2001).
  27. K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, M. C. Large, "Thermal response of Bragg gratings in PMMA microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 8844-8850 (2007).
  28. W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, O. Bang, "Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Commuun. 284, 176-182 (2011).

2011 (2)

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, O. Bang, "Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Commuun. 284, 176-182 (2011).

B. Gu, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. Qian, S. He, "Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on FBG incorporated thin-core fiber modal interferometer," Opt. Express 19, 4140 (2011).

2010 (1)

C. Zhang, W. Zhang, D. J. Webb, G.-D. Peng, "Optical fiber temperature and humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 46, 643-644 (2010).

2008 (2)

L. Zhang1, F. Gu, J. Lou, X. Yin, L. Tong, "Fast detection of humidity with a subwavelengthdiameter fiber taper coated with gelatin film," Opt. Exp. 16, 13349 (2008).

J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Two-layer nanocoatings in long-period fiber gratings for improved sensitivity of humidity sensors," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 394-400 (2008).

2007 (1)

K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, M. C. Large, "Thermal response of Bragg gratings in PMMA microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 8844-8850 (2007).

2005 (2)

H. Dobb, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, M. C. J. Large, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, "Continuous wave ultraviolet light-induced fiber Bragg gratings in few- and single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 3296-3298 (2005).

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, B. D. Powell, "Polymer-coated fibre Bragg grating for relative humidity sensing," IEEE Sensors J. 5, 1082-1089 (2005).

2003 (1)

S. Muto, O. Suzuki, T. Amano, M. Morisawa, "A plastic optical fibre sensor for real-time humidity monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 746 (2003).

2000 (1)

G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, T. Onishi, "High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects (${<}100$ m)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 347-349 (2000).

1999 (2)

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, P. L. Chu, "Highly tunable Bragg gratings in single-mode polymer optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 352-354 (1999).

M. F. Choi, O. L. Tse, "Humidity-sensitive optode membrane based on a fluorescent dye immobilized in gelatin," Anal. Chim. Acta. 378, 127 (1999).

1995 (2)

A. Kharaza, B. E. Jonesa, "A distributed optical-fibre sensing system for multi-point humidity measurement," Sens. Actuators: A: Phys. 47, 491 (1995).

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, H. Groger, "Experimental investigation of a surface plasmon-based integrated-optic humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 32, 842 (1995).

1993 (1)

O. V. Startsev, V. P. Rudnev, B. V. Perov, "Reversible moisture effects in the climatic ageing of organic glass," Polymer Degradation Stability 39, 373-379 (1993).

1988 (1)

C. Emslie, "Review: Polymer optical fibers," J. Mater. Sci. 23, 2281-2293 (1988).

1985 (1)

A. P. Russell, K. S. Fletcher, "Optical sensor for the determination of moisture," Anal. Chim. Acta. 170, 209 (1985).

1982 (1)

D. T. Turner, "Polymethyl methacrylate plus water: Sorption kinetics and volumetric changes," Polymer 23, 197-202 (1982).

1963 (1)

J. A. Barrie, B. Platt, "The diffusion and clustering of water vapour in polymers," Polymer 4, 303 (1963).

1954 (1)

F. Bueche, "Diffusion of water in polymethyl methacrylate," J. Polymer Sci. 14, 414 (1954).

1951 (1)

A. M. Thomas, "Moisture permeability, diffusion and sorption in organic film-forming materials," J. Appl. Chem. 1, 141 (1951).

Anal. Chim. Acta. (2)

M. F. Choi, O. L. Tse, "Humidity-sensitive optode membrane based on a fluorescent dye immobilized in gelatin," Anal. Chim. Acta. 378, 127 (1999).

A. P. Russell, K. S. Fletcher, "Optical sensor for the determination of moisture," Anal. Chim. Acta. 170, 209 (1985).

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, H. Groger, "Experimental investigation of a surface plasmon-based integrated-optic humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 32, 842 (1995).

C. Zhang, W. Zhang, D. J. Webb, G.-D. Peng, "Optical fiber temperature and humidity sensor," Electron. Lett. 46, 643-644 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, T. Onishi, "High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects (${<}100$ m)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 347-349 (2000).

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, P. L. Chu, "Highly tunable Bragg gratings in single-mode polymer optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 352-354 (1999).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, B. D. Powell, "Polymer-coated fibre Bragg grating for relative humidity sensing," IEEE Sensors J. 5, 1082-1089 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

J. M. Corres, I. del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Two-layer nanocoatings in long-period fiber gratings for improved sensitivity of humidity sensors," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 394-400 (2008).

J. Appl. Chem. (1)

A. M. Thomas, "Moisture permeability, diffusion and sorption in organic film-forming materials," J. Appl. Chem. 1, 141 (1951).

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

C. Emslie, "Review: Polymer optical fibers," J. Mater. Sci. 23, 2281-2293 (1988).

J. Polymer Sci. (1)

F. Bueche, "Diffusion of water in polymethyl methacrylate," J. Polymer Sci. 14, 414 (1954).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Muto, O. Suzuki, T. Amano, M. Morisawa, "A plastic optical fibre sensor for real-time humidity monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 746 (2003).

Opt. Commuun. (1)

W. Yuan, A. Stefani, M. Bache, T. Jacobsen, B. Rose, N. Herholdt-Rasmussen, F. K. Nielsen, S. Andresen, O. B. Sørensen, K. S. Hansen, O. Bang, "Improved thermal and strain performance of annealed polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Commuun. 284, 176-182 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (2)

K. E. Carroll, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, A. Argyros, M. C. Large, "Thermal response of Bragg gratings in PMMA microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 8844-8850 (2007).

L. Zhang1, F. Gu, J. Lou, X. Yin, L. Tong, "Fast detection of humidity with a subwavelengthdiameter fiber taper coated with gelatin film," Opt. Exp. 16, 13349 (2008).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Polymer (2)

D. T. Turner, "Polymethyl methacrylate plus water: Sorption kinetics and volumetric changes," Polymer 23, 197-202 (1982).

J. A. Barrie, B. Platt, "The diffusion and clustering of water vapour in polymers," Polymer 4, 303 (1963).

Polymer Degradation Stability (1)

O. V. Startsev, V. P. Rudnev, B. V. Perov, "Reversible moisture effects in the climatic ageing of organic glass," Polymer Degradation Stability 39, 373-379 (1993).

Sens. Actuators: A: Phys. (1)

A. Kharaza, B. E. Jonesa, "A distributed optical-fibre sensing system for multi-point humidity measurement," Sens. Actuators: A: Phys. 47, 491 (1995).

Other (7)

N. G. Harbach, Fibre Bragg Gratings in Polymer Optical Fibres Ph.D. dissertation EPFLLausanneSwitzerland (2008).

C. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Webb, G.-D. Peng, "Water detection in jet fuel using a polymer optical fibre Bragg grating," Proc. SPIE (2009).

P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger, P. Kronenberg, "Influence of humidity and temperature on polyimide-coated fibre Bragg gratings," Proc. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibres and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals (2001).

G. Wypych, Handbook of Solvents (Chem. Tec. Publishing, 2001).

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Clarendon Press, 1975).

J. Brandrup, Polymer Handbook (Wiley, 1999).

D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, Polymer Fibre Bragg Gratings, in Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors: Thirty Years From Research to Market (Bentham eBooks, 2010).

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