Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating sensor for bio-chemical detection. In the sensor area, the fiber has been chemically etched to the core with a diameter of 7 μm. Due to increased index contrast, the etched-core fiber Bragg grating supports multiple guided modes which respond differently to the refractive index of the surrounding medium, temperature and the strain. An asymmetric adiabatic taper is created between the etched and the unetched parts of the fiber resulting in excitation of both the symmetrical and the asymmetrical modes which can be interrogated with an erbium doped fiber amplifier amplified spontaneous emission source. The sensor is integrated with a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel for introduction of chemicals to be tested. A refractive index sensitivity of 92 nm/riu was achieved using the 3rd order mode. Further the sensor can simultaneously measure the refractive index, temperature and strain to an accuracy of 1 × 10<sup>-4</sup>, 0.32°C and 10 με assuming a wavelength resolution of 0.01 nm. By using signal processing, these resolutions can be improved by a factor of 10.

© 2011 IEEE

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2010 (1)

S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Y. Jeong, "Simultaneous measurement of refractive index, temperature, and strain using etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1431-1433 (2010).

2009 (1)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. D. Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, P. Bienstman, "Label-free biosensing with a slot waveguide based ring resonator in silicon on insulator," IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197-204 (2009).

2007 (3)

O. C. Jeong, S. Konishi, "Fabrication and drive test of pneumatic PDMS micro-pump," Sens. Actuators A 135, 849-856 (2007).

S. S. Saini, C. Stanford, S. M. Lee, J. Park, P. DeShong, W. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Monolayer detection of biochemical agents using etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1341-1343 (2007).

K. D. Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing," Opt. Exp. 15, 7610-7615 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, M. Dagenais, "Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 178-180 (2006).

E. S. Larsen, J. R. Meyrowitz, A. J. C. Wilson, "Measurement of refractive index," Int. Tables Crystallogr. C, 160-161 (2006) Ch. 3.3.

2005 (4)

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Refractive index sensor based on microstructured fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).

W. Lang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005) Art. ID 151122.

A. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Braff grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).

2004 (3)

B. Culshaw, "Optical fiber sensor technologies: Opportunities and—perhaps—pitfalls," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 39-46 (2004).

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).

C. B. Kim, C. B. Su, "Measurement of the refractive index liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ration meter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1683-1686 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y. Sano, T. Yoshino, "Fast optical wavelength interrogator employing arrayed waveguide grating for distributed fiber Bragg grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 132-139 (2003).

2001 (1)

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).

1998 (1)

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, M. Dagenais, "1.55-$\mu$m InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using a single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1998).

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. D. Kersey, "A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 291-317 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Lang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005) Art. ID 151122.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Detecting hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).

V. Vusirikala, S. S. Saini, R. E. Bartolo, S. Agarwala, R. D. Whaley, F. G. Johnson, D. R. Stone, M. Dagenais, "1.55-$\mu$m InGaAsP-InP laser arrays with integrated-mode expanders fabricated using a single epitaxial growth," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1332-1343 (1998).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. D. Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, P. Bienstman, "Label-free biosensing with a slot waveguide based ring resonator in silicon on insulator," IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197-204 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

A. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Braff grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).

S. S. Saini, C. Stanford, S. M. Lee, J. Park, P. DeShong, W. Bentley, M. Dagenais, "Monolayer detection of biochemical agents using etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1341-1343 (2007).

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, M. Dagenais, "Increased sensitivity and parametric discrimination using higher order modes of etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 178-180 (2006).

S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Y. Jeong, "Simultaneous measurement of refractive index, temperature, and strain using etched-core fiber Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1431-1433 (2010).

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Refractive index sensor based on microstructured fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).

Int. Tables Crystallogr. (1)

E. S. Larsen, J. R. Meyrowitz, A. J. C. Wilson, "Measurement of refractive index," Int. Tables Crystallogr. C, 160-161 (2006) Ch. 3.3.

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

Y. Sano, T. Yoshino, "Fast optical wavelength interrogator employing arrayed waveguide grating for distributed fiber Bragg grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 132-139 (2003).

B. Culshaw, "Optical fiber sensor technologies: Opportunities and—perhaps—pitfalls," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 39-46 (2004).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757-764 (2001).

C. B. Kim, C. B. Su, "Measurement of the refractive index liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ration meter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1683-1686 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (1)

K. D. Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing," Opt. Exp. 15, 7610-7615 (2007).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, "A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 291-317 (1996).

Sens. Actuators A (1)

O. C. Jeong, S. Konishi, "Fabrication and drive test of pneumatic PDMS micro-pump," Sens. Actuators A 135, 849-856 (2007).

Other (2)

http://www.cargille.com/opticalintro.shtml.

G. Brambilla, M. Belal, Y. Jung, Z. Song, F. Xu, T. Newson, D. Richardson, "Optical fibre microwire sensors," Proc. SPIE (2011).

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