Abstract

Recent progress on novel long-range coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry is reviewed along with its applications to diagnosing problems with optical fiber cables. The measurement range of a conventional C-OFDR is limited to the coherence length of the laser used as the light source, since the phase noise of the laser degrades the sharpness of the beat spectrum. We have developed phase-noise-compensated optical frequency domain reflectometry (PNC-OFDR) to overcome this limitation by introducing a novel phase-noise compensation technique, and we achieved a very high-resolution measurement over the fiber link length. We describe the principle of PNC-OFDR and recent related developments, and discuss its use in diagnosing issues with fiber networks.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. W. Eickhoff, R. Ulrich, "Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single-mode fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 693-695 (1981).
  2. E. Brinkmeyer, W. Brennecke, M. Zum, R. Ulrich, "Fiber Bragg reflector for mode selection and line-narrowing of injection lasers," Electron. Lett. 22, 134-135 (1986).
  3. D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, "Precision time domain reflectometry in optical fiber systems using a frequency modulated continuous wave ranging technique," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 971-977 (1985).
  4. S. A. Kingsley, D. E. N. Davies, "OFDR diagnostics for fiber and integrated-optic systems," Electron. Lett. 21, 434-435 (1985).
  5. R. I. MacDonald, H. Ahlers, "Swept wavelength reflectometer for integrated-optic measurements," Appl. Opt. 26, 114-117 (1987).
  6. H. Ghafoori-Shiraz, T. Okoshi, "Optical-fiber diagnosis using optical-frequency-domain reflectometry," Opt. Lett. 10, 160-162 (1985).
  7. H. Ghafoori-Shiraz, T. Okoshi, "Fault location in optical fibers using optical frequency domain reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 316-322 (1986).
  8. H. Barfuss, E. Brinkmeyer, "Modified optical frequency domain reflectometry with high spatial resolution for components of integrated optic systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 3-10 (1989).
  9. W. V. Sorin, D. K. Donald, S. A. Newton, M. Nazarathy, "Coherent FMCW reflectometry using a temperature tuned Nd: YAG ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 902-904 (1993).
  10. S. Henderson, "Coherent laser radar at 2 pm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4-16 (1993).
  11. J. P. von der Weid, R. Passy, N. Gisin, "Mid-range coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry with a DFB laser diode coupled to an external cavity," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 954-960 (1995).
  12. G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. von der Weid, "${-}152.5$ dB sensitivity high dynamic-range optical frequency-domain reflectometry," Electron. Lett. 32, 926-927 (1996).
  13. E. C. Burrows, K. Y. Liou, "High resolution laser LIDAR utilizing two-section distributed feedback semiconductor laser as a coherent source," Electron. Lett. 26, 577-578 (1990).
  14. M. Nakazawa, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, "Photon probe fault locator for single-mode fiber using an acoustooptical light detector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1264-1269 (1981).
  15. R. I. MacDonald, H. Ahlers, "Swept wavelength reflectometer for integrated-optic measurements," Appl. Opt. 26, 114-117 (1987).
  16. D. W. Dolfi, M. Nazarathy, S. A. Newton, "5-mm-resolution optical-frequency-domain reflectometry using a coded phase-reversal modulator," Opt. Lett. 13, 678-680 (1988).
  17. S. Venkatesh, D. W. Dolfi, "Incoherent frequency modulated cw optical reflectometry with centimeter resolution," Appl. Opt. 29, 1323-1326 (1990).
  18. M.-C. Amann, "Phase noise limited resolution of coherent LIDAR using widely tunable laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 28, 1694-1696 (1992).
  19. A. Dieckmann, M.-C. Amann, "Phase-noise-limited accuracy of distance measurements in a frequency-modulated continuous-wave LIDAR with a tunable twinguide laser diode," Opt. Eng. 34, 896-903 (1995).
  20. S. Venkatesh, W. V. Sorin, "Phase noise considerations in coherent optical FMCW reflectometry," L. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1694-1700 (1993).
  21. K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry for a long single-mode optical fiber using a coherent lightwave source and an external phase modulator," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 804-806 (1995).
  22. K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Spatial-resolution improvement in long-range coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry by frequency-sweep linearization," Electron. Lett. 33, 408-410 (1996).
  23. Y. Koshikiya, X. Fan, F. Ito, "Long range and cm-level spatial resolution measurement using coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry with SSB-SC modulator and narrow linewidth fiber laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3287-3294 (2008).
  24. B. Soller, D. Gifford, M. Froggatt, M. Wolfe, "Millimeter resolution reflectometry over two kilometers," Proc. 33rd ECOC (Germany) (2007).
  25. K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry using phase-decorrelated reflected and reference lightwaves," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1102-1109 (1997).
  26. J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, S. Jiang, "Narrow linewidth fiber laser for 100 km optical frequency domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827-1829 (2005).
  27. X. Fan, F. Ito, "Novel optical frequency domain reflectometry with measurement range beyond laser coherence length realized using concatenatively generated reference signal," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. Quantum Electron. (2007).
  28. X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, F. Ito, "Phase-noise-compensated optical frequency domain reflectometry with measurement range beyond laser coherence length realized using concatenative reference method," Opt. Lett. 32, 3227-3229 (2007).
  29. E. Brinkmeyer, U. Glombitza, "High-resolution coherent frequency-domain reflectometry using continuously tuned laser diodes," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. (1991) pp. 129-0.
  30. S. Venkatesh, W. V. Sorin, D. K. Donald, B. L. Heffner, "Coherent FMCW reflectometry using a piezoelectrically tuned Nd:YAG ring laser," Proc. Opt. Fiber Sensors (1992) pp. 61-64.
  31. K. Takada, "High-resolution OFDR with incorporated fiber-optic frequency encoder," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1069-1072 (1992).
  32. U. Glombitza, E. Brinkmeyer, "Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1377-1384 (1993).
  33. B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).
  34. X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, F. Ito, "Phase-noise-compensated optical frequency domain reflectometry," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 594-602 (2009).
  35. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford Univ., 2007).
  36. Y. Koshikiya, X. Fan, F. Ito, "Influence of acoustic perturbation of fibers in phase-noise compensated optical frequency domain reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol., 28, 3323-3328 (2010).
  37. X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, F. Ito, "2-cm spatial resolution over 40 km realized by bandwidth-division phase-noise-compensated OFDR," Proc. OFC (2011).
  38. X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, K. Okamoto, H. Iida, H. Takahashi, F. Ito, "Field trial of cm-level resolution PNC-OFDR for identifying high-birefringence section," 37th ECOC GenevaSwitzerland (2011).
  39. D. Breuer, H. J. Tessmann, A. Gladisch, H. M. Foisel, G. Neumann, H. Reiner, H. Cremer, Dig. LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (2003) pp. MB2.1/5-MB2.1/6.
  40. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, "Spatially resolved PMD measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1103-1115 (2004).
  41. A. J. Rogers, "Polarization-optical time domain reflectometry: A technique for the measurement of field distributions," Appl. Opt. 20, 1060-1074 (1981).
  42. J. G. Ellison, A. S. Siddiqui, "Automatic matrix-based analysis method for extraction of optical fiber parameters from polarimetric optical time domain reflectometry data," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1226-1232 (2000).
  43. R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, K. Himeno, "On-spool PMD estimation method for low-PMD fibers with high repeatability by local-DGD measurement using POTDR," J. Lightw. Technol., 24, 3914-3919 (2006).
  44. B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458-1460 (1998).

2010 (1)

Y. Koshikiya, X. Fan, F. Ito, "Influence of acoustic perturbation of fibers in phase-noise compensated optical frequency domain reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol., 28, 3323-3328 (2010).

2009 (1)

X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, F. Ito, "Phase-noise-compensated optical frequency domain reflectometry," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 594-602 (2009).

2008 (1)

Y. Koshikiya, X. Fan, F. Ito, "Long range and cm-level spatial resolution measurement using coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry with SSB-SC modulator and narrow linewidth fiber laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3287-3294 (2008).

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, K. Himeno, "On-spool PMD estimation method for low-PMD fibers with high repeatability by local-DGD measurement using POTDR," J. Lightw. Technol., 24, 3914-3919 (2006).

2005 (2)

B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).

J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, S. Jiang, "Narrow linewidth fiber laser for 100 km optical frequency domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827-1829 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, "Spatially resolved PMD measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1103-1115 (2004).

2000 (1)

J. G. Ellison, A. S. Siddiqui, "Automatic matrix-based analysis method for extraction of optical fiber parameters from polarimetric optical time domain reflectometry data," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1226-1232 (2000).

1998 (1)

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458-1460 (1998).

1997 (1)

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry using phase-decorrelated reflected and reference lightwaves," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1102-1109 (1997).

1996 (2)

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Spatial-resolution improvement in long-range coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry by frequency-sweep linearization," Electron. Lett. 33, 408-410 (1996).

G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. von der Weid, "${-}152.5$ dB sensitivity high dynamic-range optical frequency-domain reflectometry," Electron. Lett. 32, 926-927 (1996).

1995 (3)

J. P. von der Weid, R. Passy, N. Gisin, "Mid-range coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry with a DFB laser diode coupled to an external cavity," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 954-960 (1995).

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry for a long single-mode optical fiber using a coherent lightwave source and an external phase modulator," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 804-806 (1995).

A. Dieckmann, M.-C. Amann, "Phase-noise-limited accuracy of distance measurements in a frequency-modulated continuous-wave LIDAR with a tunable twinguide laser diode," Opt. Eng. 34, 896-903 (1995).

1993 (4)

S. Venkatesh, W. V. Sorin, "Phase noise considerations in coherent optical FMCW reflectometry," L. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1694-1700 (1993).

W. V. Sorin, D. K. Donald, S. A. Newton, M. Nazarathy, "Coherent FMCW reflectometry using a temperature tuned Nd: YAG ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 902-904 (1993).

S. Henderson, "Coherent laser radar at 2 pm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4-16 (1993).

U. Glombitza, E. Brinkmeyer, "Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1377-1384 (1993).

1992 (2)

K. Takada, "High-resolution OFDR with incorporated fiber-optic frequency encoder," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1069-1072 (1992).

M.-C. Amann, "Phase noise limited resolution of coherent LIDAR using widely tunable laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 28, 1694-1696 (1992).

1990 (2)

E. C. Burrows, K. Y. Liou, "High resolution laser LIDAR utilizing two-section distributed feedback semiconductor laser as a coherent source," Electron. Lett. 26, 577-578 (1990).

S. Venkatesh, D. W. Dolfi, "Incoherent frequency modulated cw optical reflectometry with centimeter resolution," Appl. Opt. 29, 1323-1326 (1990).

1989 (1)

H. Barfuss, E. Brinkmeyer, "Modified optical frequency domain reflectometry with high spatial resolution for components of integrated optic systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 3-10 (1989).

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

1986 (2)

E. Brinkmeyer, W. Brennecke, M. Zum, R. Ulrich, "Fiber Bragg reflector for mode selection and line-narrowing of injection lasers," Electron. Lett. 22, 134-135 (1986).

H. Ghafoori-Shiraz, T. Okoshi, "Fault location in optical fibers using optical frequency domain reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 316-322 (1986).

1985 (3)

D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, "Precision time domain reflectometry in optical fiber systems using a frequency modulated continuous wave ranging technique," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 971-977 (1985).

S. A. Kingsley, D. E. N. Davies, "OFDR diagnostics for fiber and integrated-optic systems," Electron. Lett. 21, 434-435 (1985).

H. Ghafoori-Shiraz, T. Okoshi, "Optical-fiber diagnosis using optical-frequency-domain reflectometry," Opt. Lett. 10, 160-162 (1985).

1981 (3)

A. J. Rogers, "Polarization-optical time domain reflectometry: A technique for the measurement of field distributions," Appl. Opt. 20, 1060-1074 (1981).

M. Nakazawa, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, "Photon probe fault locator for single-mode fiber using an acoustooptical light detector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1264-1269 (1981).

W. Eickhoff, R. Ulrich, "Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single-mode fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 693-695 (1981).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Eickhoff, R. Ulrich, "Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single-mode fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 693-695 (1981).

Electron. Lett. (6)

E. Brinkmeyer, W. Brennecke, M. Zum, R. Ulrich, "Fiber Bragg reflector for mode selection and line-narrowing of injection lasers," Electron. Lett. 22, 134-135 (1986).

M.-C. Amann, "Phase noise limited resolution of coherent LIDAR using widely tunable laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 28, 1694-1696 (1992).

S. A. Kingsley, D. E. N. Davies, "OFDR diagnostics for fiber and integrated-optic systems," Electron. Lett. 21, 434-435 (1985).

G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. von der Weid, "${-}152.5$ dB sensitivity high dynamic-range optical frequency-domain reflectometry," Electron. Lett. 32, 926-927 (1996).

E. C. Burrows, K. Y. Liou, "High resolution laser LIDAR utilizing two-section distributed feedback semiconductor laser as a coherent source," Electron. Lett. 26, 577-578 (1990).

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Spatial-resolution improvement in long-range coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry by frequency-sweep linearization," Electron. Lett. 33, 408-410 (1996).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, F. Ito, "Phase-noise-compensated optical frequency domain reflectometry," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 594-602 (2009).

M. Nakazawa, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, "Photon probe fault locator for single-mode fiber using an acoustooptical light detector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1264-1269 (1981).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

W. V. Sorin, D. K. Donald, S. A. Newton, M. Nazarathy, "Coherent FMCW reflectometry using a temperature tuned Nd: YAG ring laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 902-904 (1993).

J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, S. Jiang, "Narrow linewidth fiber laser for 100 km optical frequency domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827-1829 (2005).

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458-1460 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

S. Henderson, "Coherent laser radar at 2 pm using solid-state laser," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 4-16 (1993).

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry for a long single-mode optical fiber using a coherent lightwave source and an external phase modulator," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 804-806 (1995).

K. Takada, "High-resolution OFDR with incorporated fiber-optic frequency encoder," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1069-1072 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

U. Glombitza, E. Brinkmeyer, "Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1377-1384 (1993).

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry using phase-decorrelated reflected and reference lightwaves," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1102-1109 (1997).

Y. Koshikiya, X. Fan, F. Ito, "Long range and cm-level spatial resolution measurement using coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry with SSB-SC modulator and narrow linewidth fiber laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3287-3294 (2008).

J. P. von der Weid, R. Passy, N. Gisin, "Mid-range coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry with a DFB laser diode coupled to an external cavity," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 954-960 (1995).

H. Ghafoori-Shiraz, T. Okoshi, "Fault location in optical fibers using optical frequency domain reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 316-322 (1986).

H. Barfuss, E. Brinkmeyer, "Modified optical frequency domain reflectometry with high spatial resolution for components of integrated optic systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 3-10 (1989).

D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, "Precision time domain reflectometry in optical fiber systems using a frequency modulated continuous wave ranging technique," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 971-977 (1985).

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, "Spatially resolved PMD measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1103-1115 (2004).

J. G. Ellison, A. S. Siddiqui, "Automatic matrix-based analysis method for extraction of optical fiber parameters from polarimetric optical time domain reflectometry data," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1226-1232 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol., (2)

R. Goto, S. Tanigawa, S. Matsuo, K. Himeno, "On-spool PMD estimation method for low-PMD fibers with high repeatability by local-DGD measurement using POTDR," J. Lightw. Technol., 24, 3914-3919 (2006).

Y. Koshikiya, X. Fan, F. Ito, "Influence of acoustic perturbation of fibers in phase-noise compensated optical frequency domain reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol., 28, 3323-3328 (2010).

L. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Venkatesh, W. V. Sorin, "Phase noise considerations in coherent optical FMCW reflectometry," L. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1694-1700 (1993).

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Dieckmann, M.-C. Amann, "Phase-noise-limited accuracy of distance measurements in a frequency-modulated continuous-wave LIDAR with a tunable twinguide laser diode," Opt. Eng. 34, 896-903 (1995).

Opt. Exp. (1)

B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (8)

E. Brinkmeyer, U. Glombitza, "High-resolution coherent frequency-domain reflectometry using continuously tuned laser diodes," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. (1991) pp. 129-0.

S. Venkatesh, W. V. Sorin, D. K. Donald, B. L. Heffner, "Coherent FMCW reflectometry using a piezoelectrically tuned Nd:YAG ring laser," Proc. Opt. Fiber Sensors (1992) pp. 61-64.

X. Fan, F. Ito, "Novel optical frequency domain reflectometry with measurement range beyond laser coherence length realized using concatenatively generated reference signal," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. Quantum Electron. (2007).

B. Soller, D. Gifford, M. Froggatt, M. Wolfe, "Millimeter resolution reflectometry over two kilometers," Proc. 33rd ECOC (Germany) (2007).

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford Univ., 2007).

X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, F. Ito, "2-cm spatial resolution over 40 km realized by bandwidth-division phase-noise-compensated OFDR," Proc. OFC (2011).

X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, K. Okamoto, H. Iida, H. Takahashi, F. Ito, "Field trial of cm-level resolution PNC-OFDR for identifying high-birefringence section," 37th ECOC GenevaSwitzerland (2011).

D. Breuer, H. J. Tessmann, A. Gladisch, H. M. Foisel, G. Neumann, H. Reiner, H. Cremer, Dig. LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (2003) pp. MB2.1/5-MB2.1/6.

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