Abstract

Many implementations of optical finite impulse response filter for signal processing applications have been realized in integrated photonics using 2 × 2 couplers. We have implemented a filter using 4 × 4 couplers. Such a filter is useful for the compensation of residual dispersion in a fiber optic transmission system. Silicon photonics realization using 4-port multimode interference couplers in 4 $\mu$m silicon-on-insulator technology has been carried out for a free spectral range of 100 GHz. The transmission and group delay for the fabricated device have been measured and a good agreement between the simulation and experimental results has been achieved. The proposed filter can compensate up to ±176 ps/nm of fiber chromatic dispersion.

© 2012 IEEE

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  2. C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley-Interscience, 1999).
  3. M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, P. Krummrich, "Adaptive distortion compensation with integrated optical finite impulse response filters in high bitrate optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 273-280 (2004).
  4. F. Horst, R. Germann, U. Bapst, D. Wiesmann, B. Offrein, G. Bona, "Compact tunable FIR dispersion compensator in SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1570-1572 (2003).
  5. K. Takiguchi, K. Jinguji, K. Okamoto, Y. Ohmori, "Variable group-delay dispersion equalizer using lattice-form programmable optical filter on planar lightwave circuit," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 270-276 (1996).
  6. M. Shirasaki, "Chromatic-dispersion compensator using virtually imaged phased array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1598-1600 (1997).
  7. F. Kerbstadt, K. Petermann, "Analysis of adaptive dispersion compensators with double-AWG structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1468-1477 (2005).
  8. D. Marom, C. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, S. Chandrasekhar, "Compact colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 1000-ps/nm tuning range for 40-Gb/s data rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 237-241 (2006).
  9. C. Doerr, D. Marom, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, S. Chandrasekhar, "40-Gb/s colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 1000-ps/nm tuning range employing a planar lightwave circuit and a deformable mirror," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./NFOEC (2005) pp. 1-3.
  10. N. Fontaine, J. Yang, W. Jiang, D. Geisler, K. Okamoto, R. Huang, S. Yoo, "Active arrayed-waveguide grating with amplitude and phase control for arbitrary filter generation and high-order dispersion compensation," 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2008) pp. 1-2.
  11. C. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, L. Gomez, "Four-stage Mach–Zehnder-type tunable optical dispersion compensator with single-knob control," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2637-2639 (2005).
  12. N. Neumann, T. Schuster, C. Schaffer, "Simple filter for dispersion estimation via optical VSB filtering," 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2009) pp. 1-2.
  13. R. W. S. A. V. Oppenheim, J. R. Buck, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1999).
  14. N. Neumann, T. Duthel, M. Haas, C. Schaffer, "General design rules for the synthesis of dispersion and dispersion slope compensation FIR and IIR filters with reduced complexity," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3555-3562 (2007).
  15. T. Duthel, D. Fritzsche, F. Michael, C. Schaffer, D. Breuer, "Quasianalytic synthesis of nonrecursive optical delay line filters for reliable compensation of dispersion effects," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4403-4410 (2006).
  16. P. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. Soldano, M. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1004-1009 (1994).
  17. H. Wei, J. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Shi, C. Fang, "Signal bandwidth of general n$\,\times\,$n multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 739-745 (2001).
  18. N. Lagali, M. Paiam, R. MacDonald, K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, "Analysis of generalized Mach–Zehnder interferometers for variable-ratio power splitting and optimized switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2542-2550 (1999).
  19. L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, C. Weinert, "C-band optical 90$^{\circ}$-hybrids based on silicon-on-insulator 4$\,\times\,$4 waveguide couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143-145 (2009).
  20. L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, "Towards silicon on insulator DQPSK demodulators," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.
  21. K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, "SOI based 2$\,\times\,$2 and 4$\,\times\,$4 waveguide couplers—evolution from DPSK to DQPSK," Proc. 5th IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. (2008) pp. 209-211.
  22. K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 614-616 (2008).
  23. D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, D. A. , S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, W. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).

2009

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, C. Weinert, "C-band optical 90$^{\circ}$-hybrids based on silicon-on-insulator 4$\,\times\,$4 waveguide couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143-145 (2009).

2008

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 614-616 (2008).

2007

N. Neumann, T. Duthel, M. Haas, C. Schaffer, "General design rules for the synthesis of dispersion and dispersion slope compensation FIR and IIR filters with reduced complexity," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3555-3562 (2007).

2006

T. Duthel, D. Fritzsche, F. Michael, C. Schaffer, D. Breuer, "Quasianalytic synthesis of nonrecursive optical delay line filters for reliable compensation of dispersion effects," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4403-4410 (2006).

D. Marom, C. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, S. Chandrasekhar, "Compact colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 1000-ps/nm tuning range for 40-Gb/s data rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 237-241 (2006).

2005

C. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, L. Gomez, "Four-stage Mach–Zehnder-type tunable optical dispersion compensator with single-knob control," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2637-2639 (2005).

F. Kerbstadt, K. Petermann, "Analysis of adaptive dispersion compensators with double-AWG structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1468-1477 (2005).

2004

M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, P. Krummrich, "Adaptive distortion compensation with integrated optical finite impulse response filters in high bitrate optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 273-280 (2004).

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, D. A. , S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, W. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).

2003

F. Horst, R. Germann, U. Bapst, D. Wiesmann, B. Offrein, G. Bona, "Compact tunable FIR dispersion compensator in SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1570-1572 (2003).

2001

H. Wei, J. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Shi, C. Fang, "Signal bandwidth of general n$\,\times\,$n multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 739-745 (2001).

1999

N. Lagali, M. Paiam, R. MacDonald, K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, "Analysis of generalized Mach–Zehnder interferometers for variable-ratio power splitting and optimized switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2542-2550 (1999).

1997

M. Shirasaki, "Chromatic-dispersion compensator using virtually imaged phased array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1598-1600 (1997).

1996

K. Takiguchi, K. Jinguji, K. Okamoto, Y. Ohmori, "Variable group-delay dispersion equalizer using lattice-form programmable optical filter on planar lightwave circuit," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 270-276 (1996).

1994

P. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. Soldano, M. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1004-1009 (1994).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, P. Krummrich, "Adaptive distortion compensation with integrated optical finite impulse response filters in high bitrate optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 273-280 (2004).

K. Takiguchi, K. Jinguji, K. Okamoto, Y. Ohmori, "Variable group-delay dispersion equalizer using lattice-form programmable optical filter on planar lightwave circuit," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 270-276 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Shirasaki, "Chromatic-dispersion compensator using virtually imaged phased array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1598-1600 (1997).

F. Horst, R. Germann, U. Bapst, D. Wiesmann, B. Offrein, G. Bona, "Compact tunable FIR dispersion compensator in SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1570-1572 (2003).

C. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, L. Gomez, "Four-stage Mach–Zehnder-type tunable optical dispersion compensator with single-knob control," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2637-2639 (2005).

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, C. Weinert, "C-band optical 90$^{\circ}$-hybrids based on silicon-on-insulator 4$\,\times\,$4 waveguide couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 143-145 (2009).

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 614-616 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol.

N. Neumann, T. Duthel, M. Haas, C. Schaffer, "General design rules for the synthesis of dispersion and dispersion slope compensation FIR and IIR filters with reduced complexity," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3555-3562 (2007).

T. Duthel, D. Fritzsche, F. Michael, C. Schaffer, D. Breuer, "Quasianalytic synthesis of nonrecursive optical delay line filters for reliable compensation of dispersion effects," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4403-4410 (2006).

P. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. Soldano, M. Smit, "Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1004-1009 (1994).

H. Wei, J. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Shi, C. Fang, "Signal bandwidth of general n$\,\times\,$n multimode interference couplers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 739-745 (2001).

N. Lagali, M. Paiam, R. MacDonald, K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, "Analysis of generalized Mach–Zehnder interferometers for variable-ratio power splitting and optimized switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2542-2550 (1999).

F. Kerbstadt, K. Petermann, "Analysis of adaptive dispersion compensators with double-AWG structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1468-1477 (2005).

D. Marom, C. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, S. Chandrasekhar, "Compact colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 1000-ps/nm tuning range for 40-Gb/s data rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 237-241 (2006).

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. Doerr, D. Marom, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, S. Chandrasekhar, "40-Gb/s colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 1000-ps/nm tuning range employing a planar lightwave circuit and a deformable mirror," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./NFOEC (2005) pp. 1-3.

N. Fontaine, J. Yang, W. Jiang, D. Geisler, K. Okamoto, R. Huang, S. Yoo, "Active arrayed-waveguide grating with amplitude and phase control for arbitrary filter generation and high-order dispersion compensation," 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2008) pp. 1-2.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Academic, 2008) pp. 325-336.

C. K. Madsen, J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley-Interscience, 1999).

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, "Towards silicon on insulator DQPSK demodulators," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, "SOI based 2$\,\times\,$2 and 4$\,\times\,$4 waveguide couplers—evolution from DPSK to DQPSK," Proc. 5th IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. (2008) pp. 209-211.

N. Neumann, T. Schuster, C. Schaffer, "Simple filter for dispersion estimation via optical VSB filtering," 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2009) pp. 1-2.

R. W. S. A. V. Oppenheim, J. R. Buck, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1999).

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