Abstract

This paper investigates the performance of some recently proposed optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission techniques in a short-range intensity-modulated, direct-detected (IM/DD) optical channel. Due to the unipolarity of the IM/DD channel, asymmetric clipping and associated nonlinear distortion is inevitable, resulting in an unfavorable dc power and a significant performance penalty. Using a detailed analysis of the clipped signal, our recent work focused on reducing this clipping-resulted dc via both power optimization and frequency planning. In this paper, a set of effective receiver signal-to-noise ratio formulas is proposed, which helps in accurately and efficiently evaluating the system performance across various optical OFDM systems. We conduct a power efficiency analysis to reveal tradeoffs between power and spectral efficiencies among different systems. Our results show that with a cost of additional complexity, a diversity-combining technique offers significant benefits in all cases.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. S. Hashemi, Z. Ghassemlooy, L. Chao, D. Benhaddou, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for indoor optical wireless communications using visible light LEDs," Proc. Int. Symp. Commun. Syst. Netw. Digital Signal Process. (2008) pp. 174-178.
  2. O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimemnez, S. Rodriguze, J. Rabadan, A. Ayala, "OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 199-204 (2005).
  3. J. Carruthers, J. Kahn, "Multi-subcarrier modulation for non-directed wireless infrared communication," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 538-546 (1996).
  4. S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, "High-speed transmission over multimode optical fibers," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OWR2.
  5. S. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, D. Cardenas, H. van den Boom, A. Koonen, "Discrete multione modulation for high-speed data transmission over multimode fibers using 850-nm VCSEL," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OWM2.
  6. I. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, M. Neifeld, "LDPC-coded OFDM for optical communication systems with direct detection," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1446-1454 (2007).
  7. J. Tang, K. Shore, "Maximizing the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode-fiber link by optimizing analog-to-digital converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 787-798 (2007).
  8. L. Chen, B. Krongold, J. Evans, "Theoretical Characterization of Nonlinear Clipping Effects in IM/DD Optical OFDM Systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. .
  9. Y. Ma, Y. Tang, W. Shieh, "107 Gbit/s transmission over multimode fibre with coherent optical OFDM using centre launching technique," IEE Electron. Lett. 45, 848-849 (2009).
  10. S. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, O. Ziemannn, H. van den Boom, A. Koonen, "Low-cost and robust 1-Gbit/s plastic optical fiber link based on light-emitting diode technology," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San Diego, CA (2008) Paper OWB3.
  11. S. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Mattews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. van de Boom, A. Koonen, "Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1503-1513 (2009).
  12. H. Yang, S. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, A. Koonen, "47.7 Gb/s transmission over 100 m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 352-359 (2010).
  13. A. Lowery, L. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2007).
  14. W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IEE Electron. Letters 42, 587-588 (2006).
  15. S. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takada, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).
  16. B. Schmidt, A. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Impact of PMD in single-receiver and polarization-diverse direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2792-2799 (2009).
  17. Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, W. Shieh, "1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 308-315 (2010).
  18. J. Yu, Z. Dong, X. Xiao, Y. Xia, S. Shi, C. Ge, W. Zhou, N. Chi, Y. Shao, "Generation, transmission and coherent detection of 11.2 Tb/s (112$\,\times\,$100 Gb/s) single source optical OFDM superchannel," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPA6.
  19. J. Wei, C. Snchez, E. Hugues-Salas, P. Spencer, J. Tang, "Wavelength-offset filtering in optical OFDM IMDD systems using directly modulated DFB lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2861-2870 (2011).
  20. W. Shieh, W. Chen, R. Tucker, "Polarisation mode dispersion mitigation in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed systems," IEE Electron. Lett. 42, 996-997 (2006).
  21. J. Armstrong, A. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," IEE Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).
  22. J. Armstrong, B. Schmidt, D. Kalra, H. Suraweera, A. Lowery, "Performance of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM in AWGN for an intensity modulated direct detection system," Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf. (2006).
  23. J. Armstrong, B. Schmidt, "Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN," IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343-345 (2008).
  24. D. Barros, J. Kahn, "OFDM vs. OOK with MLSD for IM/DD systems," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThE1.
  25. D. Chanda, A. Sesay, B. Davies, "Performance of clipped OFDM signal in fiber," IEEE Can. Conf. Electr. Comput. Eng. (2004) pp. 2401-2404.
  26. L. Chen, B. Krongold, J. Evans, "Diversity combining for asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM in IM/DD channels," Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf. (2009).
  27. R. You, J. M. Kahn, "Average power reduction techniques for multiple subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2164-2171 (2001).
  28. S. Teramoto, T. Ohtsuki, "Multiple-subcarrier optical communication systems with subcarrier signal-point sequence," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1738-1743 (2005).
  29. L. Chen, B. Krongold, J. Evans, "Successive decoding of anti-periodic OFDM signals in IM/DD optical channel," Proc. Int. Conf. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-6.
  30. J. Chow, J. Tu, J. Cioffi, "A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).
  31. L. Chen, Distortion management in intensity modulated optical OFDM systems Ph.D. dissertation Univ. MelbourneAustralia (2012).
  32. D. Barros, J. Kahn, "Optical modulator optimization for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2370-2378 (2009).
  33. J. Kahn, J. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).
  34. J. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

2011

J. Wei, C. Snchez, E. Hugues-Salas, P. Spencer, J. Tang, "Wavelength-offset filtering in optical OFDM IMDD systems using directly modulated DFB lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2861-2870 (2011).

2010

H. Yang, S. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, A. Koonen, "47.7 Gb/s transmission over 100 m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 352-359 (2010).

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, W. Shieh, "1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 308-315 (2010).

2009

D. Barros, J. Kahn, "Optical modulator optimization for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2370-2378 (2009).

Y. Ma, Y. Tang, W. Shieh, "107 Gbit/s transmission over multimode fibre with coherent optical OFDM using centre launching technique," IEE Electron. Lett. 45, 848-849 (2009).

S. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Mattews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. van de Boom, A. Koonen, "Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1503-1513 (2009).

B. Schmidt, A. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Impact of PMD in single-receiver and polarization-diverse direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2792-2799 (2009).

2008

S. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takada, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

J. Armstrong, B. Schmidt, "Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN," IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343-345 (2008).

2007

A. Lowery, L. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2007).

I. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, M. Neifeld, "LDPC-coded OFDM for optical communication systems with direct detection," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1446-1454 (2007).

J. Tang, K. Shore, "Maximizing the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode-fiber link by optimizing analog-to-digital converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 787-798 (2007).

2006

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IEE Electron. Letters 42, 587-588 (2006).

W. Shieh, W. Chen, R. Tucker, "Polarisation mode dispersion mitigation in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed systems," IEE Electron. Lett. 42, 996-997 (2006).

J. Armstrong, A. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," IEE Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).

2005

S. Teramoto, T. Ohtsuki, "Multiple-subcarrier optical communication systems with subcarrier signal-point sequence," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1738-1743 (2005).

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimemnez, S. Rodriguze, J. Rabadan, A. Ayala, "OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 199-204 (2005).

2001

R. You, J. M. Kahn, "Average power reduction techniques for multiple subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2164-2171 (2001).

1997

J. Kahn, J. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).

1996

J. Carruthers, J. Kahn, "Multi-subcarrier modulation for non-directed wireless infrared communication," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 538-546 (1996).

1991

J. Chow, J. Tu, J. Cioffi, "A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).

IEE Electron. Lett.

Y. Ma, Y. Tang, W. Shieh, "107 Gbit/s transmission over multimode fibre with coherent optical OFDM using centre launching technique," IEE Electron. Lett. 45, 848-849 (2009).

W. Shieh, W. Chen, R. Tucker, "Polarisation mode dispersion mitigation in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed systems," IEE Electron. Lett. 42, 996-997 (2006).

J. Armstrong, A. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," IEE Electron. Lett. 42, 370-372 (2006).

IEE Electron. Letters

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IEE Electron. Letters 42, 587-588 (2006).

IEE Proc. Optoelectron.

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimemnez, S. Rodriguze, J. Rabadan, A. Ayala, "OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 199-204 (2005).

IEEE Commun. Lett.

J. Armstrong, B. Schmidt, "Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN," IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343-345 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

J. Chow, J. Tu, J. Cioffi, "A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).

J. Carruthers, J. Kahn, "Multi-subcarrier modulation for non-directed wireless infrared communication," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 538-546 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

I. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, M. Neifeld, "LDPC-coded OFDM for optical communication systems with direct detection," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1446-1454 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

L. Chen, B. Krongold, J. Evans, "Theoretical Characterization of Nonlinear Clipping Effects in IM/DD Optical OFDM Systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. .

R. You, J. M. Kahn, "Average power reduction techniques for multiple subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2164-2171 (2001).

S. Teramoto, T. Ohtsuki, "Multiple-subcarrier optical communication systems with subcarrier signal-point sequence," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 1738-1743 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol.

D. Barros, J. Kahn, "Optical modulator optimization for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2370-2378 (2009).

J. Wei, C. Snchez, E. Hugues-Salas, P. Spencer, J. Tang, "Wavelength-offset filtering in optical OFDM IMDD systems using directly modulated DFB lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2861-2870 (2011).

J. Tang, K. Shore, "Maximizing the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode-fiber link by optimizing analog-to-digital converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 787-798 (2007).

S. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takada, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

B. Schmidt, A. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Impact of PMD in single-receiver and polarization-diverse direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2792-2799 (2009).

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, W. Shieh, "1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 308-315 (2010).

S. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Mattews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. van de Boom, A. Koonen, "Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1503-1513 (2009).

H. Yang, S. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, A. Koonen, "47.7 Gb/s transmission over 100 m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 352-359 (2010).

A. Lowery, L. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2007).

Proc. IEEE

J. Kahn, J. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).

Other

J. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

L. Chen, Distortion management in intensity modulated optical OFDM systems Ph.D. dissertation Univ. MelbourneAustralia (2012).

L. Chen, B. Krongold, J. Evans, "Successive decoding of anti-periodic OFDM signals in IM/DD optical channel," Proc. Int. Conf. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-6.

J. Armstrong, B. Schmidt, D. Kalra, H. Suraweera, A. Lowery, "Performance of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM in AWGN for an intensity modulated direct detection system," Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf. (2006).

D. Barros, J. Kahn, "OFDM vs. OOK with MLSD for IM/DD systems," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThE1.

D. Chanda, A. Sesay, B. Davies, "Performance of clipped OFDM signal in fiber," IEEE Can. Conf. Electr. Comput. Eng. (2004) pp. 2401-2404.

L. Chen, B. Krongold, J. Evans, "Diversity combining for asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM in IM/DD channels," Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf. (2009).

S. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, O. Ziemannn, H. van den Boom, A. Koonen, "Low-cost and robust 1-Gbit/s plastic optical fiber link based on light-emitting diode technology," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San Diego, CA (2008) Paper OWB3.

J. Yu, Z. Dong, X. Xiao, Y. Xia, S. Shi, C. Ge, W. Zhou, N. Chi, Y. Shao, "Generation, transmission and coherent detection of 11.2 Tb/s (112$\,\times\,$100 Gb/s) single source optical OFDM superchannel," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPA6.

S. Hashemi, Z. Ghassemlooy, L. Chao, D. Benhaddou, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for indoor optical wireless communications using visible light LEDs," Proc. Int. Symp. Commun. Syst. Netw. Digital Signal Process. (2008) pp. 174-178.

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, "High-speed transmission over multimode optical fibers," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OWR2.

S. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, D. Cardenas, H. van den Boom, A. Koonen, "Discrete multione modulation for high-speed data transmission over multimode fibers using 850-nm VCSEL," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OWM2.

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