Abstract

This paper describes a simple and highly sensitive auto bias control (ABC) technique based on asymmetric bias dithering for optical quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation and QPSK variants. Using our asymmetric bias dithering proposal, the required bandwidth of the ABC circuit is only ~2fd, where fd is the frequency of dithering, fd < 1 kHz. Thus, the circuit can be constructed without using high-speed components, and bias control performance is not limited by the signal bit rate. In this paper, we detail the concept of asymmetric bias dithering. We describe experiments that confirm bias monitoring and ABC operation, using a 20–64 Gbit/s optical QPSK signal. Its typical penalty is 0.1 dB, and Q factor fluctuation is negligible over 6 h of operation.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).
  2. T. Yamada, Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, A. Kaneka, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "86-Gbit/s differential quadrature phase-shift-keying modulator using hybrid assembly technique with planar lightwave circuit and LiNbO$_{3}$ devices," Proc. 19th Annu. Meet. IEEE Laser Electro.-Opt. Soc. (2006) pp. 963-964.
  3. J. P. Salvestrini, L. Guilbert, M. Fontana, M. Abarkan, S. Gille, "Analysis and control of the DC drift in LiNbO$_{3}$-based Mach–Zehnder modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1522-1534 (2011).
  4. H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator," Electron. Lett. 46, 430-431 (2010).
  5. H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Auto bias control technique for QPSK modulator with asymmetric bias dithering," Proc. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 458-459.
  6. K. Sekine, C. Hasegawa, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "A novel bias control technique for MZ modulator with monitoring power of backward light for advanced modulation formats," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2007) pp. 451-453.
  7. P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, I. Shpantzer, "Closed-loop bias control of optical quadraturemodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2209-2211 (2006).
  8. W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. Wu, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach–Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 103-105 (2009).
  9. P. S. Cho, M. Nazarathy, "Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1030-1032 (2010).
  10. T. Yoshida, T. Sugihara, K. Sawada, K. Uto, K. Shimizu, "Automatic bias control for arbitrary optical signal generation by dual-parallel MZM," Proc. 15th Optoelectron. Commun. Conf. pp. 460-461.
  11. T. Yoshida, T. Sugihara, K. Uto, H. Bessho, K. Sawada, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Mizuochi, "A study on automatic bias control for arbitrary optical signal generation by dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder modulator," Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-3.
  12. H. G. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, Y. C. Chung, "Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor," Proc. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf. (2011) pp. 1-3.
  13. E. Torrengo, S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, I. Fatadin, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, P. Bayvel, "Influence of pulse shape in 112 Gbit/s WDM PDM-QPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1714-1716 (2010).
  14. D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gb/2 POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).
  15. A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, H. Ishii, "Ultra-high capacity WDM transmission using spectrally efficient PDM 16-QAM modulation and C- and extended L-band wideband optical amplification," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 578-586 (2011).
  16. S. Yamanaka, T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Nakagawa, M. Nagatani, H. Nosaka, "11$\,\times\,$171 Gb/s PDM 16-QAM transmission over 1440 km with a spectral efficiency of 6.4 b/s/Hz using high-speed DAC," Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-3.
  17. H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering," Opt. Exp. 19, B308-B312 (2011).

2011 (3)

J. P. Salvestrini, L. Guilbert, M. Fontana, M. Abarkan, S. Gille, "Analysis and control of the DC drift in LiNbO$_{3}$-based Mach–Zehnder modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1522-1534 (2011).

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, H. Ishii, "Ultra-high capacity WDM transmission using spectrally efficient PDM 16-QAM modulation and C- and extended L-band wideband optical amplification," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 578-586 (2011).

H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering," Opt. Exp. 19, B308-B312 (2011).

2010 (3)

P. S. Cho, M. Nazarathy, "Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1030-1032 (2010).

E. Torrengo, S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, I. Fatadin, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, P. Bayvel, "Influence of pulse shape in 112 Gbit/s WDM PDM-QPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1714-1716 (2010).

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator," Electron. Lett. 46, 430-431 (2010).

2009 (2)

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).

W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. Wu, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach–Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 103-105 (2009).

2007 (1)

D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gb/2 POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).

2006 (1)

P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, I. Shpantzer, "Closed-loop bias control of optical quadraturemodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2209-2211 (2006).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator," Electron. Lett. 46, 430-431 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

P. S. Cho, J. B. Khurgin, I. Shpantzer, "Closed-loop bias control of optical quadraturemodulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2209-2211 (2006).

W. R. Peng, B. Zhang, X. Wu, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Compensation for I/Q imbalances and bias deviation of the Mach–Zehnder modulators in direct-detected optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 103-105 (2009).

P. S. Cho, M. Nazarathy, "Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1030-1032 (2010).

E. Torrengo, S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, I. Fatadin, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, P. Bayvel, "Influence of pulse shape in 112 Gbit/s WDM PDM-QPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1714-1716 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gb/2 POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, H. Ishii, "Ultra-high capacity WDM transmission using spectrally efficient PDM 16-QAM modulation and C- and extended L-band wideband optical amplification," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 578-586 (2011).

J. P. Salvestrini, L. Guilbert, M. Fontana, M. Abarkan, S. Gille, "Analysis and control of the DC drift in LiNbO$_{3}$-based Mach–Zehnder modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1522-1534 (2011).

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering," Opt. Exp. 19, B308-B312 (2011).

Other (7)

S. Yamanaka, T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, H. Masuda, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Nakagawa, M. Nagatani, H. Nosaka, "11$\,\times\,$171 Gb/s PDM 16-QAM transmission over 1440 km with a spectral efficiency of 6.4 b/s/Hz using high-speed DAC," Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-3.

T. Yamada, Y. Sakamaki, T. Saida, A. Kaneka, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "86-Gbit/s differential quadrature phase-shift-keying modulator using hybrid assembly technique with planar lightwave circuit and LiNbO$_{3}$ devices," Proc. 19th Annu. Meet. IEEE Laser Electro.-Opt. Soc. (2006) pp. 963-964.

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Auto bias control technique for QPSK modulator with asymmetric bias dithering," Proc. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 458-459.

K. Sekine, C. Hasegawa, N. Kikuchi, S. Sasaki, "A novel bias control technique for MZ modulator with monitoring power of backward light for advanced modulation formats," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2007) pp. 451-453.

T. Yoshida, T. Sugihara, K. Sawada, K. Uto, K. Shimizu, "Automatic bias control for arbitrary optical signal generation by dual-parallel MZM," Proc. 15th Optoelectron. Commun. Conf. pp. 460-461.

T. Yoshida, T. Sugihara, K. Uto, H. Bessho, K. Sawada, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Mizuochi, "A study on automatic bias control for arbitrary optical signal generation by dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder modulator," Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-3.

H. G. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, Y. C. Chung, "Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor," Proc. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf. (2011) pp. 1-3.

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