Abstract

In this paper, we propose a broadband silicon Mach–Zehnder switch (MZS) for wavelength division multiplexing applications on photonic networks on chip. The proposed reconfigurable switch is based on a single-stage three-waveguide interferometric configuration in which the phase shift is achieved via a p-i-n diode. The device is analyzed by the coupled-mode theory and by the finite-difference beam propagation method. The proposed configuration leads to a considerable increase in the bandwidth with respect to the conventional MZS. For example, the two-waveguide MZS with a gap g=0.30 μm between the two coupled waveguides exhibits bandwidth Δλ =60 nm, crosstalk CT = - 15 dB, and insertion loss IL = 1.1 dB. Conversely, a bandwidth Δλ =115 nm is achieved for the three-waveguide configuration to parity of the other parameters.

© 2012 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, J. E. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337-1361 (2009).
  2. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).
  3. G. Calò, A. Farinola, V. Petruzzelli, "Equalization in photonic bandgap multiwavelength filters by the Newton binomial distribution," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, 1668-1679 (2011).
  4. W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 15, 17106-17113 (2007).
  5. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-36 (2007).
  6. L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 13, 3130-3135 (2005).
  7. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).
  8. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, "High contrast 40 Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon," Opt. Exp. 19, 11507-11516 (2011).
  9. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767-769 (2008).
  10. J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, Y. A. Vlasov, "Low-power, 2$\,\times\,$2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks," Opt. Exp. 17, 24020-24029 (2009).
  11. J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, "Design of a digital, ultra-broadband electro-optic switch for reconfigurable networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 12, 23793-23801 (2009).
  12. K. Kishioka, "A design method to achieve wide wavelength-flattened responses in the directional coupler-type optical power splitters," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1705-1715 (2001).
  13. X. Lin, D. Liu, J.-J. He, "Design and analysis of 2$\,\times\,$2 half-wave waveguide couplers," Appl. Opt. 48, F18-F23 (2009).
  14. P. Ganguly, J. C. Biswas, S. Das, S. K. Lahiri, "A three-waveguide polarization independent power splitter on lithium niobate substrate," Opt. Commun. 168, 349-354 (1999).
  15. A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).
  16. W. Huang, "Coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides: An overview," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 11, 963-982 (1994).
  17. W. Huang, C. Xu, S. Chu, S. K. Chaudhuri, "The finite-difference vector beam propagation method: Analysis and assessment," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 295-305 (1992).
  18. A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, G. Ficarella, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, "Design of active switches using an In$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{1-{\rm x}}$As$_{\rm y}$P$_{1-{\rm y}}$/InP heterostructure," Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 19-27 (1997).
  19. E. Marom, O. Ramer, S. Ruschin, "Relation between normal-mode and coupled-mode analyses of parallel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1311-1319 (1984).
  20. Y.-M. Kim, S.-P. Han, C.-M. Kim, "Crosstalks of two-waveguide and three-waveguide directional couplers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 1257-1268 (2000).
  21. M. De Sario, A. D'Orazio, V. Lanave, "Realistic design of a WDM duplexer made from LiNbO$_{3}$ optical filters," J. Phys. D 21, s147-s149 (1988).
  22. J. Buus, "The effective index method and its application to semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1083-1089 (1982).
  23. Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2009).
  24. M. Yang, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. Van Campenhout, B. G. Lee, C. R. V. Jahnes, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, Y. A. Vlasov, "Non-blocking 4$\,\times\,$4 electro-optic silicon switch for on-chip photonic networks," Opt. Exp. 19, 47-54 (2011).
  25. V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, "Scaling and optimization of MOS optical modulators in nanometer SOI waveguides," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 401-408 (2008).
  26. R. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
  27. S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 316-324 (2010).

2011 (3)

G. Calò, A. Farinola, V. Petruzzelli, "Equalization in photonic bandgap multiwavelength filters by the Newton binomial distribution," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, 1668-1679 (2011).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, "High contrast 40 Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon," Opt. Exp. 19, 11507-11516 (2011).

M. Yang, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. Van Campenhout, B. G. Lee, C. R. V. Jahnes, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, Y. A. Vlasov, "Non-blocking 4$\,\times\,$4 electro-optic silicon switch for on-chip photonic networks," Opt. Exp. 19, 47-54 (2011).

2010 (1)

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 316-324 (2010).

2009 (4)

X. Lin, D. Liu, J.-J. He, "Design and analysis of 2$\,\times\,$2 half-wave waveguide couplers," Appl. Opt. 48, F18-F23 (2009).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, J. E. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337-1361 (2009).

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, Y. A. Vlasov, "Low-power, 2$\,\times\,$2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks," Opt. Exp. 17, 24020-24029 (2009).

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, "Design of a digital, ultra-broadband electro-optic switch for reconfigurable networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 12, 23793-23801 (2009).

2008 (2)

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767-769 (2008).

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, "Scaling and optimization of MOS optical modulators in nanometer SOI waveguides," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 401-408 (2008).

2007 (3)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 15, 17106-17113 (2007).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-36 (2007).

2006 (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

2005 (1)

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 13, 3130-3135 (2005).

2001 (1)

K. Kishioka, "A design method to achieve wide wavelength-flattened responses in the directional coupler-type optical power splitters," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1705-1715 (2001).

2000 (1)

Y.-M. Kim, S.-P. Han, C.-M. Kim, "Crosstalks of two-waveguide and three-waveguide directional couplers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 1257-1268 (2000).

1999 (1)

P. Ganguly, J. C. Biswas, S. Das, S. K. Lahiri, "A three-waveguide polarization independent power splitter on lithium niobate substrate," Opt. Commun. 168, 349-354 (1999).

1997 (1)

A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, G. Ficarella, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, "Design of active switches using an In$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{1-{\rm x}}$As$_{\rm y}$P$_{1-{\rm y}}$/InP heterostructure," Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 19-27 (1997).

1994 (1)

W. Huang, "Coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides: An overview," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 11, 963-982 (1994).

1992 (1)

W. Huang, C. Xu, S. Chu, S. K. Chaudhuri, "The finite-difference vector beam propagation method: Analysis and assessment," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 295-305 (1992).

1988 (1)

M. De Sario, A. D'Orazio, V. Lanave, "Realistic design of a WDM duplexer made from LiNbO$_{3}$ optical filters," J. Phys. D 21, s147-s149 (1988).

1987 (1)

R. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

1984 (1)

E. Marom, O. Ramer, S. Ruschin, "Relation between normal-mode and coupled-mode analyses of parallel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1311-1319 (1984).

1982 (1)

J. Buus, "The effective index method and its application to semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1083-1089 (1982).

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

R. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

J. Buus, "The effective index method and its application to semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1083-1089 (1982).

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).

E. Marom, O. Ramer, S. Ruschin, "Relation between normal-mode and coupled-mode analyses of parallel waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1311-1319 (1984).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Subnanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nanophotonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 316-324 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767-769 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, "Scaling and optimization of MOS optical modulators in nanometer SOI waveguides," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 401-408 (2008).

Int. J. Optoelectron. (1)

A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, G. Ficarella, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, "Design of active switches using an In$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{1-{\rm x}}$As$_{\rm y}$P$_{1-{\rm y}}$/InP heterostructure," Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 19-27 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

W. Huang, C. Xu, S. Chu, S. K. Chaudhuri, "The finite-difference vector beam propagation method: Analysis and assessment," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 295-305 (1992).

K. Kishioka, "A design method to achieve wide wavelength-flattened responses in the directional coupler-type optical power splitters," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1705-1715 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

W. Huang, "Coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides: An overview," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 11, 963-982 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

G. Calò, A. Farinola, V. Petruzzelli, "Equalization in photonic bandgap multiwavelength filters by the Newton binomial distribution," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, 1668-1679 (2011).

J. Phys. D (1)

M. De Sario, A. D'Orazio, V. Lanave, "Realistic design of a WDM duplexer made from LiNbO$_{3}$ optical filters," J. Phys. D 21, s147-s149 (1988).

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Ganguly, J. C. Biswas, S. Das, S. K. Lahiri, "A three-waveguide polarization independent power splitter on lithium niobate substrate," Opt. Commun. 168, 349-354 (1999).

Opt. Exp. (8)

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, Y. A. Vlasov, "Low-power, 2$\,\times\,$2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks," Opt. Exp. 17, 24020-24029 (2009).

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, "Design of a digital, ultra-broadband electro-optic switch for reconfigurable networks-on-chip," Opt. Exp. 12, 23793-23801 (2009).

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 15, 17106-17113 (2007).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-36 (2007).

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 13, 3130-3135 (2005).

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, "High contrast 40 Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon," Opt. Exp. 19, 11507-11516 (2011).

M. Yang, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. Van Campenhout, B. G. Lee, C. R. V. Jahnes, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, Y. A. Vlasov, "Non-blocking 4$\,\times\,$4 electro-optic silicon switch for on-chip photonic networks," Opt. Exp. 19, 47-54 (2011).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y.-M. Kim, S.-P. Han, C.-M. Kim, "Crosstalks of two-waveguide and three-waveguide directional couplers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 1257-1268 (2000).

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, J. E. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337-1361 (2009).

Other (1)

Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.