Abstract

We report an on-chip integrated ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) waveguide structure suitable for telecommunication applications. Single gaps with different widths of 5, 10, and 20 μm inside individual silica waveguides were filled with an FLC mixture. The waveguide devices operate as a binary switch or an attenuator in a temperature range from 30 °C to 60 °C. The FLC mixture exhibited a good alignment quality in these gaps without alignment layers. A good extinction ratio of up to 33.9 dB and a low insertion loss of <4.3 dB at λ = 1550 nm were observed. Switching times of <100 μs were obtained for the low electric fields applied in this experiment.

© 2012 IEEE

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  25. S.-D. Lee, J. S. Patel, "Nonlinear behavior of the field-induced molecular tilt near the smectic A-C* transition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1653-1655 (1989).
  26. J. V. DeGroot, T. V. Clapp, J. P. Hannington, K. Su, "Hybrid integration of silicone PDLC into a planar light circuit," Proc. SPIE Nanocryst. Organic Hybrid Nanomater. (2003) pp. 163-170.
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  30. M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, "Stroboscopic microscopy of fast electro-optic switching in ferroelectric smectic C liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 39-41 (1982).
  31. H. Orihara, Y. Ishibashi, "Switching characteristics of ferroelectric liquid crystal DOBAMBC," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1274-1277 (1984).
  32. H. Fujikake, T. Kuki, H. Kamoda, F. Sato, T. Nomoto, "Voltage-variable microwave delay line using ferroelectric liquid crystal with aligned submicron polymer fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1815-1817 (2003).
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2011 (1)

X. Hu, O. Hadeler, H. J. Coles, "High optical contrast liquid crystal switch and analogue response attenuator at 1550 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1655-1657 (2011).

2010 (1)

D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, A. d'Alessandro, "A switchable liquid-crystal optical channel waveguide on silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 762-768 (2010).

2005 (2)

A. Fratalocchi, R. Asquini, G. Assanto, "Integrated electro-optic switch in liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. 13, 32-37 (2005).

A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211108-1-211108-3 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. L. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, "Engineering liquid crystal for optimal uses in optical communication environments," Liq. Cryst. 31, 241-270 (2004).

2003 (2)

K. Hirabayashi, C. Amano, "Liquid-crystal polarization stabilizers on fiber arrays," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2162-2171 (2003).

H. Fujikake, T. Kuki, H. Kamoda, F. Sato, T. Nomoto, "Voltage-variable microwave delay line using ferroelectric liquid crystal with aligned submicron polymer fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1815-1817 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. Hirabayashi, C. Amano, "Liquid-crystal polarization controller arrays on planar waveguide circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 504-506 (2002).

2001 (1)

D. S. Hermann, G. Scalia, C. Pitois, F. De Marco, K. D'havé, G. Abbate, M. Lindgren, A. Hult, "Novel passive polymer waveguides integrated with electro-optically active ferroelectric liquid crystals," Opt. Eng. 40, 2188-2198 (2001).

2000 (1)

D. S. Hermann, F. De Marco, G. Scalia, L. Sirleto, G. C. Righini, M. Lindgren, G. Abbate, "Electro-optic modulation of light by a planar waveguide based on ferroelectric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 352, 379-388 (2000).

1998 (1)

G. Scalia, D. S. Hermann, G. Abbate, L. Komitov, P. Mormile, G. C. Righini, L. Sirleto, "Integrated electro-optic switch based on a ferroelectric liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 321-335 (1998).

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

J. Newton, H. J. Coles, P. Hodge, J. P. Hanningtonn, "Synthesis and properties of low molar mass liquid crystalline siloxane derivatives," J. Mater. Chem. 4, 869-874 (1994).

1993 (3)

J. Newton, H. J. Coles, H. Owen, P. Hodge, "A new series of low molar mass ferroelectric organosiloxanes with unusual electro-optic properties," Ferroelectrics 148, 379-387 (1993).

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, Y. Uchiyama, M. Utsumi, K. Yoshino, "Linear optical switching in a FLC/waveguide composite device," Liq. Cryst. 14, 381-387 (1993).

Y. Uchiyama, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, "Leaky mode operation in FLC/waveguide modulator," Ferroelectrics 149, 217-228 (1993).

1992 (1)

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, Y. Uchiyama, M. Utsumi, K. Yoshino, "Electrooptic modulation in the optical waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3189-3192 (1992).

1991 (1)

K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, A. Tagawa, T. Hatai, K. Asada, Y. Sadohara, K. Daido, Y. Ohmori, "Electro-optic switching in polymer waveguide using surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 202, 163-169 (1991).

1990 (3)

N. A. Clark, M. A. Handschy, "Surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal electro-optic waveguide switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1852-1854 (1990).

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, T. Hatai, K. Yoshino, "Fast optical switching in polymer waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L843-L845 (1990).

S. Muto, T. Nagata, K. Asai, H. Ashizawa, K. Arii, "Optical stabilizer and directional coupler switch using polymer thin film waveguides with liquid crystal clad," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1724-1726 (1990).

1989 (1)

S.-D. Lee, J. S. Patel, "Nonlinear behavior of the field-induced molecular tilt near the smectic A-C* transition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1653-1655 (1989).

1986 (1)

Y. Okamura, K. Kitatani, S. Yamamoto, "Low-voltage driving in nematic liquid crystal overlayered waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 360-363 (1986).

1984 (1)

H. Orihara, Y. Ishibashi, "Switching characteristics of ferroelectric liquid crystal DOBAMBC," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1274-1277 (1984).

1982 (1)

M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, "Stroboscopic microscopy of fast electro-optic switching in ferroelectric smectic C liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 39-41 (1982).

1977 (2)

S. Garoff, R. B. Meyer, "Electroclinic effect at the A-C phase change in a chiral smectic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 848-851 (1977).

J. R. Whinnery, C. Hu, Y. S. Kwon, "Liquid-crystal waveguides for integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 262-267 (1977).

1974 (1)

C. Hu, J. R. Whinnery, "Losses of a nematic liquid-crystal optical waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 64, 1424-1432 (1974).

1973 (1)

D. J. Channin, "Optical waveguide modulation using nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 365-366 (1973).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

N. A. Clark, M. A. Handschy, "Surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal electro-optic waveguide switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1852-1854 (1990).

D. J. Channin, "Optical waveguide modulation using nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 365-366 (1973).

A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211108-1-211108-3 (2005).

S.-D. Lee, J. S. Patel, "Nonlinear behavior of the field-induced molecular tilt near the smectic A-C* transition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1653-1655 (1989).

M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, "Stroboscopic microscopy of fast electro-optic switching in ferroelectric smectic C liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 39-41 (1982).

H. Fujikake, T. Kuki, H. Kamoda, F. Sato, T. Nomoto, "Voltage-variable microwave delay line using ferroelectric liquid crystal with aligned submicron polymer fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1815-1817 (2003).

Ferroelectrics (2)

J. Newton, H. J. Coles, H. Owen, P. Hodge, "A new series of low molar mass ferroelectric organosiloxanes with unusual electro-optic properties," Ferroelectrics 148, 379-387 (1993).

Y. Uchiyama, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, "Leaky mode operation in FLC/waveguide modulator," Ferroelectrics 149, 217-228 (1993).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, A. d'Alessandro, "A switchable liquid-crystal optical channel waveguide on silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 762-768 (2010).

J. R. Whinnery, C. Hu, Y. S. Kwon, "Liquid-crystal waveguides for integrated optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 262-267 (1977).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Hirabayashi, C. Amano, "Liquid-crystal polarization controller arrays on planar waveguide circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 504-506 (2002).

X. Hu, O. Hadeler, H. J. Coles, "High optical contrast liquid crystal switch and analogue response attenuator at 1550 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1655-1657 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

K. Hirabayashi, C. Amano, "Liquid-crystal polarization stabilizers on fiber arrays," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2162-2171 (2003).

Y. Okamura, K. Kitatani, S. Yamamoto, "Low-voltage driving in nematic liquid crystal overlayered waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 360-363 (1986).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Newton, H. J. Coles, P. Hodge, J. P. Hanningtonn, "Synthesis and properties of low molar mass liquid crystalline siloxane derivatives," J. Mater. Chem. 4, 869-874 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

C. Hu, J. R. Whinnery, "Losses of a nematic liquid-crystal optical waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 64, 1424-1432 (1974).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

S. Muto, T. Nagata, K. Asai, H. Ashizawa, K. Arii, "Optical stabilizer and directional coupler switch using polymer thin film waveguides with liquid crystal clad," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1724-1726 (1990).

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, T. Hatai, K. Yoshino, "Fast optical switching in polymer waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L843-L845 (1990).

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, Y. Uchiyama, M. Utsumi, K. Yoshino, "Electrooptic modulation in the optical waveguide using ferroelectric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3189-3192 (1992).

H. Orihara, Y. Ishibashi, "Switching characteristics of ferroelectric liquid crystal DOBAMBC," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1274-1277 (1984).

Liq. Cryst. (2)

M. Ozaki, Y. Sadohara, Y. Uchiyama, M. Utsumi, K. Yoshino, "Linear optical switching in a FLC/waveguide composite device," Liq. Cryst. 14, 381-387 (1993).

J. L. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, "Engineering liquid crystal for optimal uses in optical communication environments," Liq. Cryst. 31, 241-270 (2004).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (3)

K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, A. Tagawa, T. Hatai, K. Asada, Y. Sadohara, K. Daido, Y. Ohmori, "Electro-optic switching in polymer waveguide using surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 202, 163-169 (1991).

G. Scalia, D. S. Hermann, G. Abbate, L. Komitov, P. Mormile, G. C. Righini, L. Sirleto, "Integrated electro-optic switch based on a ferroelectric liquid crystal," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 321-335 (1998).

D. S. Hermann, F. De Marco, G. Scalia, L. Sirleto, G. C. Righini, M. Lindgren, G. Abbate, "Electro-optic modulation of light by a planar waveguide based on ferroelectric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 352, 379-388 (2000).

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. S. Hermann, G. Scalia, C. Pitois, F. De Marco, K. D'havé, G. Abbate, M. Lindgren, A. Hult, "Novel passive polymer waveguides integrated with electro-optically active ferroelectric liquid crystals," Opt. Eng. 40, 2188-2198 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (1)

A. Fratalocchi, R. Asquini, G. Assanto, "Integrated electro-optic switch in liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. 13, 32-37 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Garoff, R. B. Meyer, "Electroclinic effect at the A-C phase change in a chiral smectic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 848-851 (1977).

Other (4)

J. V. DeGroot, T. V. Clapp, J. P. Hannington, K. Su, "Hybrid integration of silicone PDLC into a planar light circuit," Proc. SPIE Nanocryst. Organic Hybrid Nanomater. (2003) pp. 163-170.

X. Hu, Low molar mass organosiloxane ferroelectric liquid crystals for telecommunication applications Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Eng. Cambridge Univ.CambridgeU.K. (2010).

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (R. R. Donnelley, 1989).

S. T. Lagerwall, Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 1999).

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