Abstract

Silicon photonic interconnects offer a promising solution to meeting the ever growing demand for more efficient I/O bandwidth density. We report an ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed silicon photonic transceiver for dense, large bandwidth inter/intrachip interconnects. Low parasitic microsolder-based hybrid bonding enables close integration of silicon photonic array devices optimized on a 130 nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS platform with CMOS very large scale integration circuits optimized on a 40 nm silicon CMOS platform to achieve unprecedented energy efficiency. The hybrid CMOS transceiver consists of eight 10 Gb/s channels with a total consumed power below 6 mW/channel. The eight-channel wavelength division multiplexing transmitter array using cascaded tunable ring modulators demonstrated better than 100 fJ/bit energy efficiency for 10 Gb/s operation excluding the laser power and tuning power, while the eight-channel receiver array using broadband Ge p-i-n waveguide detectors show sensitivity of better than -15 dBm for a bit error rate of 10<sup>-12</sup> at a data rate of 10 Gb/s with energy efficiency of better than 500fJ/bit.

© 2011 IEEE

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  34. P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, X. Wang, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "1$\,\times\,$4 reconfigurable demultiplexing filter based on free-standing silicon racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 24504-24509 (2010).
  35. J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, G. Li, J. Yao, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Highly-efficient thermally-tuned resonant optical filters," Opt. Exp. 18, 19055-19063 (2010).
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2011 (3)

J. L. Shin, D. Huang, B. Petrick, C. Hwang, K. W. Tam, A. Smith, H. Pham, H. Li, T. Johnson, F. Schumacher, A. S. Leon, A. Strong, "A 40 nm 16-core 128-thread SPARC SoC processor," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 131-144 (2011).

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver," Opt. Exp. 19, 5172-5186 (2011).

A. V. Krisnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, "Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 567-579 (2011).

2010 (4)

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, X. Wang, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "1$\,\times\,$4 reconfigurable demultiplexing filter based on free-standing silicon racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 24504-24509 (2010).

J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, G. Li, J. Yao, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Highly-efficient thermally-tuned resonant optical filters," Opt. Exp. 18, 19055-19063 (2010).

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, G. Li, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, J. Costa, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "A tunable 1$\,\times\,$4 silicon CMOS photonic wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer for dense optical interconnects," Opt. Exp. 18, 5151-5160 (2010).

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "An sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems," Opt. Exp. 18, 204-211 (2010).

2009 (2)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C. Kung, M. Asghari, "Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 45, 409-414 (2009).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. E. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337-1361 (2009).

2008 (1)

X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, J. Simons, T. Sze, D. Cohen, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, D. Feng, H. Lei, D. Zheng, H. Liang, C. C. Kong, J. Luff, "Optical proximity communication using reflective mirrors," Opt. Exp. 16, 15052-15058 (2008).

2007 (2)

U. G. Nawathe, M. Hassan, K. C. Yen, A. Kumar, A. Ramachandran, D. Greenhill, "Implementation of an 8-core, 64-thread, power efficient SPARC server on a chip," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 6-20 (2007).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, R. Baets, "Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 151-156 (2007).

2006 (1)

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating and emitting light on silicon—Challenges and opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4239 (2005).

2004 (1)

1998 (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO$_{2}$ microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, X. Zheng, I. Shubin, J. Simons, D. Feng, H. Liang, C. Kung, M. Asghari, "Optical proximity communication with passively aligned silicon photonic chips," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 45, 409-414 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron (1)

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (2)

U. G. Nawathe, M. Hassan, K. C. Yen, A. Kumar, A. Ramachandran, D. Greenhill, "Implementation of an 8-core, 64-thread, power efficient SPARC server on a chip," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 6-20 (2007).

J. L. Shin, D. Huang, B. Petrick, C. Hwang, K. W. Tam, A. Smith, H. Pham, H. Li, T. Johnson, F. Schumacher, A. S. Leon, A. Strong, "A 40 nm 16-core 128-thread SPARC SoC processor," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 46, 131-144 (2011).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. V. Krisnamoorthy, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, "Exploiting CMOS manufacturing to reduce tuning requirements for resonant optical devices," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 567-579 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, "Ultra-compact Si-SiO$_{2}$ microring resonator optical channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, R. Baets, "Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 151-156 (2007).

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating and emitting light on silicon—Challenges and opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4239 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (6)

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "An sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems," Opt. Exp. 18, 204-211 (2010).

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver," Opt. Exp. 19, 5172-5186 (2011).

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, X. Wang, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "1$\,\times\,$4 reconfigurable demultiplexing filter based on free-standing silicon racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 18, 24504-24509 (2010).

J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, G. Li, J. Yao, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Highly-efficient thermally-tuned resonant optical filters," Opt. Exp. 18, 19055-19063 (2010).

X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, J. Simons, T. Sze, D. Cohen, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, D. Feng, H. Lei, D. Zheng, H. Liang, C. C. Kong, J. Luff, "Optical proximity communication using reflective mirrors," Opt. Exp. 16, 15052-15058 (2008).

X. Zheng, I. Shubin, G. Li, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, J. Costa, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "A tunable 1$\,\times\,$4 silicon CMOS photonic wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer for dense optical interconnects," Opt. Exp. 18, 5151-5160 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. E. Cunningham, "Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97, 1337-1361 (2009).

Other (20)

J. E. Cunninghmam, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. G. Mitchell, X. Zheng, Coupled Data Techniques (Springer, 2010) pp. 163-168.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Ultralow-power, high-performance Si photonic transmitter," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OMI2.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzensand, C. Gunn, Advances in Optical Technologies (Hindawi, 2008).

M. Shah, J. Barreh, J. Brooks, R. Golla, G. Grohoski, H. Gura, R. Hetherington, P. Jordan, M. Luttrell, C. Olson, B. Saha, D. Sheaham, L. Spracklen, A. Wynn, "UltraSPARC T2: A highly-threaded, power efficient, SPARC SoC," Proc. IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2007) pp. 22-25.

J. Yao, X. Zheng, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Grating coupler based optical proximity coupling for scalable computing systems," Proc. Optoelectron. Interconnects Compon. Integration XI (2011) pp. 794405-1-794405-7.

S. Assefa, W. M. Green, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, Y. Vlasov, "CMOS integrated nanophotonics: Enabling technology for exascale computing systems," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OMM6.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "On the design of a photonic network-on-chip," Proc. First Int. Symp. Netw.-on-Chip (2007) pp. 53-64.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLaren, N. P. Jouppi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausoleil, J. H. Ahn, "Corona: System implications of emerging nanophotonic technology," Proc. Int. Symp. Comput. Archit. (2008) pp. 153-164.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, M. Popovic, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, K. Asanovic, "Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics," Proc. IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects (2008) pp. 21-30.

A. S. Leon, D. Sheahan, "The ultraSPARC T1: A power-efficient high-throughput 32-thread SPARC processor," Proc. IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2006) pp. 27-30.

M. Gschwind, "Optimizing data sharing and address translation for the cell BE heterogeneous chip multiprocessor," Proc. Int. Conf. Comput. Design (2008) pp. 478-485.

J. Stuecheli, “System performance scaling of IBM POWER6™ based servers,” Hotchips 19 (2007) http://www.hotchips.org/archives/hc19/2_Mon/HC19.01/HC19.01.02.pdf.

J. M. Tendler, “POWER7 processors: The beat goes on,” (2011) http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/wikis/download/attachments/104533501/POWER7+-+The+Beat+Goes+On.pdf.

“Xilinx FPGA device families support documentation.” http://www.xilinx.com/support/documentation/index.htm.

D. Mansur, "Stratix V with 28 Gbps transceivers in 28 nm," Hotchips 22 (2010).

S. Palermo, M. Horowitz, "High-speed transmitters in 90 nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects," Proc. 32nd Eur. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2006) pp. 508-511.

R. Ho, J. Lexau, F. Liu, D. Patil, R. Hopkins, E. Alon, N. Pinckney, P. Amberg, X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Circuits for silicon photonics on a ‘macrochip’," Proc. IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2009) pp. 17-20.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, R. Ho, "10 Gbps, 535 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS," Proc. VLSI Symp. (2011) pp. 290-291.

P. Castelein, J. M. Debono, M. Fendler, C. Louis, F. Marion, L. Mathieu, M. Volpert, "Ultra fine pitch hybridization of large imaging detectors," Proc. IEEE Nuclear Sci. Symp. Conf. Rec. (2003) pp. 3518-3521.

H. D. Thacker, Y. Luo, J. Shi, I. Shubin, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, J. Yao, J. Costa, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, M. Asghari, R. Ho, K. Raj, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, "Hybrid-integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for ultralow energy inter-chip communications flip-chip integrated silicon photonic bridge chips for sub-picojoule per bit optical links," Proc. IEEE Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2010) pp. 240-246.

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