Abstract

This paper reviews the future directions of next generation passive optical networks. A discussion on standardized 10 Gb/s passive optical network (PON) systems is first presented. Next, new technologies that facilitate multiple access beyond 10 Gb/s time division multiple access (TDMA)-PONs will be reviewed, with particular focus on the motivation, key technologies, and deployment challenges. The wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) PON will be discussed and in combination with TDMA, the hybrid WDM/TDMA PON will be reviewed in the context of improving system reach, capacity, and user count. Next, discussions on complementary high-speed technologies that provide improved tolerance to system impairments, capacity, and spectral efficiency will be presented. These technologies include digital coherent detection, orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), and optical code division multiple access (OCDMA).

© 2011 IEEE

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2011 (3)

S. Jain, F. Effenberger, A. Szabo, Z. Feng, A. Forcucci, G. Wei, Y. Luo, R. Mapes, Y. Zhang, V. O'Byrne, "World's first XG-PON field trial," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 524-528 (2011).

F. J. Effenberger, "The XG-PON system: Cost effective 10 Gb/s access," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 403-409 (2011).

J. Zhang, N. Ansari, "Scheduling hybrid WDM/TDM passive optical networks with nonzero laser tuning time," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 19, 1014-1027 (2011).

2010 (8)

J.-I. Kani, "Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1290-1297 (2010).

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Yu, Y.-K. Huang, T. Wang, "Polarization-multiplexed optical wireless transmission with coherent detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1218-1227 (2010).

F. J. Effenberger, Y. Maeda, J. Kani, "Standardization trends and prospective views on the next generation of broadband optical access systems," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 773-780 (2010).

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, "100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 70-77 (2010).

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Transmission of 1.25-Gb/s PSK signal generated by using RSOA in 110-km coherent WDM PON," Opt. Exp. 18, 14871-14877 (2010).

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, C. Biao, L. Wosinska, B. Mukherjee, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation for long-reach PON: Overcoming performance degradation," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 100-108 (2010).

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25 Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25 km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems," Opt. Exp. 18, 5541-5555 (2010).

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 745-747 (2010).

2009 (5)

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Multi-thread pollling: A dynamic bandwidth scheme in long-reach PON," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 133-142 (2009).

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, T. Miyazaki, K. Kitayama, "Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps$\,\times\,$8 user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16$\,\times\,$16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 299-305 (2009).

R. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, S.-H. Yang, "Long-reach passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol 27, 273-291 (2009).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. Sorin, R. Tucker, "Energy consumption in optical IP networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2391-2401 (2009).

2008 (4)

L. Xu, H. K. Tsang, "Colorless WDM-PON optical network unit (ONU) based on integrated nonreciprocal optical phase modulator and optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 863-865 (2008).

K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "10-Gbps operation of RSOA for WDM PON," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1533-1535 (2008).

I. Papagiannakis, M. Omella, D. Klonidis, A. N. Birbas, J. Kikidis, I. Tomkos, J. Prat, "Investigation of 10-Gbps RSOA-based upstream transmission in WDM-PONs utilizing optical filtering and electronic equalization," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 20, 2168-2170 (2008).

E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, "Improved transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals over directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD links using adaptive cyclic prefix," Opt. Exp. 16, 9480-9494 (2008).

2007 (4)

M. Kashima, G. C. Gupta, H. Iwamura, H. Tamai, R. Watanabe, T. Ushikubo, T. Kamijoh, "42 dB loss budget hybrid DWDM-CDM-PON without optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 43, 49-50 (2007).

E. Wong, K. L. Lee, T. B. Anderson, "Directly modulated self-seeding reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers as colorless transmitters in wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 67-74 (2007).

I. Garces, "Analysis of narrow-FSK downstream modulation in colorless WDM PONs," Electron. Lett 43, 471-472 (2007).

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, Y. C. Chung, "Enhanced performance of RSOA based WDM PON by using manchester coding," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 624-430 (2007).

2006 (6)

S. Kaneko, J. Kani, K. Iwatsuki, A. Ohki, M. Sugo, S. Kamei, "Scalability of spectrum-sliced DWDM transmission and its expansion using forward error correction," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1295-1301 (2006).

D. J. Shin, Y. C. Keh, J. W. Kwon, E. H. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. K. Park, J. W. Park, K. Y. Oh, S. W. Kim, I. K. Yun, H. C. Shin, D. Heo, J. S. Lee, H. S. Shin, H. S. Kim, S. B. Park, D. K. Jung, S. Hwang, Y. J. Oh, D. H. Jang, C. S. Shim, "Low-cost WDM-PON with colorless bidirectional transceivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 158-165 (2006).

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 2827-2834 (2006).

G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S.-H. Cho, W. Lee, B. W. Kim, "Over 26-nm wavelength tunable external cavity laser based on polymer waveguide platforms for WDM access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102-2104 (2006).

K. Kitayama, X. Wang, N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON—Solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1654-1662 (2006).

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWH configuration for code-based photonic routers—Part 1: Modeling and design," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).

2005 (4)

X. Wang, K. Matsushima, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, F. Kubota, K. Kitayama, "High-performance optica code generation and recognition by use of a 511-chip, 640-Gchip/s phase-shifted superstructure fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 30, 355-357 (2005).

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, S.-D. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Weiner, "Four-user, 2.5-Gb/s, spectrally coded OCDMA system demonstration using low-power nonlinear processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 143-158 (2005).

Y.-L. Hsueh, M. S. Rogge, S. Yamamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, "A highly flexible and efficient passive optical network employing dynamic wavelength allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 277-286 (2005).

M. Attygalle, N. Nadarajah, A. Nirmalathas, "Wavelength reused upstream transmission scheme for WDM passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 41, 1025-1027 (2005).

2004 (1)

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Demonstration of an error-free 4$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2186-2188 (2004).

2003 (2)

D. J. Shin, D. K. Jung, J. K. Lee, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Choi, Y. C. Bang, H. S. Shin, J. Lee, S. T. Hwang, Y. J. Oh, "155 Mbit/s transmission using ASE-injection Fabry–Perot laser diode in WDM-PON over 70$^{\circ}$C temperature range," Electron. Lett. 39, 1331-1332 (2003).

N. Deng, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, F. Tong, "Data re-modulation on downstream OFSK signal for upstream transmission in WDM passive optical network," Electron. Lett. 39, 1741-1743 (2003).

2002 (1)

J. H. Lee, P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, "A grating-based OCDMA coding-decoding system incorporating a nonlinear optical loop mirror for improved code recognition and noise reduction," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 36-46 (2002).

2001 (2)

A. J. Phillips, J. M. Senior, R. Mercinelli, M. Valvo, P. J. Vetter, C. M. Martin, M. O. van Deventer, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, "Redundancy strategies for a high splitting optically amplified passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 137-149 (2001).

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, R. Moore, "Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs," Electron. Lett. 37, 1181-1182 (2001).

2000 (1)

H. D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1067-1069 (2000).

1999 (1)

Y. Katagiri, K. Suzuki, K. Aida, "Intensity stabilisation of spectrum-sliced Gaussian radiation based on amplitude squeezing using semiconductor optical amplifiers with gain saturation," Electron. Lett. 35, 1362-1364 (1999).

1997 (1)

M. O. van Deventer, Y. M. van Dam, P. J. M. Peters, F. Vermaerke, A. J. Phillips, "Evolution phases to an ultra-broadband access network: Results from ACTS-PLANET," IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 72-77 (1997).

1996 (3)

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, Y. Yoshikuni, "Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433-441 (1996).

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, N. K. Dutta, "Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1175-1177 (1996).

M. O. van Deventer, "Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs for ACTS-PLANET," Proc. SPIE 2919, 242-251 (1996).

1994 (1)

G. Lachs, S. M. Zaidi, A. K. Singh, "Sensitivity enhancement using coherent heterodyne detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1029-1035 (1994).

1989 (1)

D. W. Faulkner, D. B. Payne, J. R. Stern, J. W. Ballance, "Optical networks for local loop applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1741-1751 (1989).

1988 (1)

M. H. Reeve, A. R. Hunwicks, W. Zhao, S. G. Methley, L. Bickers, S. Hornung, "LED spectral slicing for single-mode local loop applications," Electron. Lett. 24, 389-390 (1988).

1986 (1)

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, T. R. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiberoptic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 547-554 (1986).

Electron. Lett (1)

I. Garces, "Analysis of narrow-FSK downstream modulation in colorless WDM PONs," Electron. Lett 43, 471-472 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (7)

M. Attygalle, N. Nadarajah, A. Nirmalathas, "Wavelength reused upstream transmission scheme for WDM passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 41, 1025-1027 (2005).

N. Deng, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, F. Tong, "Data re-modulation on downstream OFSK signal for upstream transmission in WDM passive optical network," Electron. Lett. 39, 1741-1743 (2003).

M. H. Reeve, A. R. Hunwicks, W. Zhao, S. G. Methley, L. Bickers, S. Hornung, "LED spectral slicing for single-mode local loop applications," Electron. Lett. 24, 389-390 (1988).

Y. Katagiri, K. Suzuki, K. Aida, "Intensity stabilisation of spectrum-sliced Gaussian radiation based on amplitude squeezing using semiconductor optical amplifiers with gain saturation," Electron. Lett. 35, 1362-1364 (1999).

D. J. Shin, D. K. Jung, J. K. Lee, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Choi, Y. C. Bang, H. S. Shin, J. Lee, S. T. Hwang, Y. J. Oh, "155 Mbit/s transmission using ASE-injection Fabry–Perot laser diode in WDM-PON over 70$^{\circ}$C temperature range," Electron. Lett. 39, 1331-1332 (2003).

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, R. Moore, "Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs," Electron. Lett. 37, 1181-1182 (2001).

M. Kashima, G. C. Gupta, H. Iwamura, H. Tamai, R. Watanabe, T. Ushikubo, T. Kamijoh, "42 dB loss budget hybrid DWDM-CDM-PON without optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 43, 49-50 (2007).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, C. Biao, L. Wosinska, B. Mukherjee, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation for long-reach PON: Overcoming performance degradation," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 100-108 (2010).

M. O. van Deventer, Y. M. van Dam, P. J. M. Peters, F. Vermaerke, A. J. Phillips, "Evolution phases to an ultra-broadband access network: Results from ACTS-PLANET," IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 72-77 (1997).

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, "100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 70-77 (2010).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, Y. Yoshikuni, "Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433-441 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J.-I. Kani, "Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1290-1297 (2010).

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. (1)

I. Papagiannakis, M. Omella, D. Klonidis, A. N. Birbas, J. Kikidis, I. Tomkos, J. Prat, "Investigation of 10-Gbps RSOA-based upstream transmission in WDM-PONs utilizing optical filtering and electronic equalization," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 20, 2168-2170 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "10-Gbps operation of RSOA for WDM PON," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1533-1535 (2008).

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, N. K. Dutta, "Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1175-1177 (1996).

L. Xu, H. K. Tsang, "Colorless WDM-PON optical network unit (ONU) based on integrated nonreciprocal optical phase modulator and optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 863-865 (2008).

G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S.-H. Cho, W. Lee, B. W. Kim, "Over 26-nm wavelength tunable external cavity laser based on polymer waveguide platforms for WDM access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102-2104 (2006).

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gb/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 745-747 (2010).

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Demonstration of an error-free 4$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2186-2188 (2004).

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. D. Kim, S.-G. Kang, C.-H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry–Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1067-1069 (2000).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

J. Zhang, N. Ansari, "Scheduling hybrid WDM/TDM passive optical networks with nonzero laser tuning time," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 19, 1014-1027 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol (2)

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 2827-2834 (2006).

R. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, S.-H. Yang, "Long-reach passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol 27, 273-291 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (18)

E. Wong, K. L. Lee, T. B. Anderson, "Directly modulated self-seeding reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers as colorless transmitters in wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 67-74 (2007).

D. J. Shin, Y. C. Keh, J. W. Kwon, E. H. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. K. Park, J. W. Park, K. Y. Oh, S. W. Kim, I. K. Yun, H. C. Shin, D. Heo, J. S. Lee, H. S. Shin, H. S. Kim, S. B. Park, D. K. Jung, S. Hwang, Y. J. Oh, D. H. Jang, C. S. Shim, "Low-cost WDM-PON with colorless bidirectional transceivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 158-165 (2006).

S. Kaneko, J. Kani, K. Iwatsuki, A. Ohki, M. Sugo, S. Kamei, "Scalability of spectrum-sliced DWDM transmission and its expansion using forward error correction," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1295-1301 (2006).

Y.-L. Hsueh, M. S. Rogge, S. Yamamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, "A highly flexible and efficient passive optical network employing dynamic wavelength allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 277-286 (2005).

F. J. Effenberger, "The XG-PON system: Cost effective 10 Gb/s access," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 403-409 (2011).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

S. Jain, F. Effenberger, A. Szabo, Z. Feng, A. Forcucci, G. Wei, Y. Luo, R. Mapes, Y. Zhang, V. O'Byrne, "World's first XG-PON field trial," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 524-528 (2011).

D. W. Faulkner, D. B. Payne, J. R. Stern, J. W. Ballance, "Optical networks for local loop applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1741-1751 (1989).

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. Sorin, R. Tucker, "Energy consumption in optical IP networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2391-2401 (2009).

K. Kitayama, X. Wang, N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON—Solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1654-1662 (2006).

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Yu, Y.-K. Huang, T. Wang, "Polarization-multiplexed optical wireless transmission with coherent detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1218-1227 (2010).

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, X. Wang, G. Cincotti, A. Sakamoto, T. Miyazaki, K. Kitayama, "Field trial of duplex, 10 Gbps$\,\times\,$8 user DPSK-OCDMA system using a single 16$\,\times\,$16 multi-port encoder/decoder and 16-level phase-shifted SSFBG encoder/decoders," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 299-305 (2009).

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, S.-D. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Weiner, "Four-user, 2.5-Gb/s, spectrally coded OCDMA system demonstration using low-power nonlinear processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 143-158 (2005).

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, T. R. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiberoptic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 547-554 (1986).

J. H. Lee, P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, "A grating-based OCDMA coding-decoding system incorporating a nonlinear optical loop mirror for improved code recognition and noise reduction," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 36-46 (2002).

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWH configuration for code-based photonic routers—Part 1: Modeling and design," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).

A. J. Phillips, J. M. Senior, R. Mercinelli, M. Valvo, P. J. Vetter, C. M. Martin, M. O. van Deventer, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, "Redundancy strategies for a high splitting optically amplified passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 137-149 (2001).

G. Lachs, S. M. Zaidi, A. K. Singh, "Sensitivity enhancement using coherent heterodyne detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1029-1035 (1994).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Multi-thread pollling: A dynamic bandwidth scheme in long-reach PON," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 133-142 (2009).

F. J. Effenberger, Y. Maeda, J. Kani, "Standardization trends and prospective views on the next generation of broadband optical access systems," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 773-780 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (3)

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Transmission of 1.25-Gb/s PSK signal generated by using RSOA in 110-km coherent WDM PON," Opt. Exp. 18, 14871-14877 (2010).

E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, "Improved transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals over directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD links using adaptive cyclic prefix," Opt. Exp. 16, 9480-9494 (2008).

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25 Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25 km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems," Opt. Exp. 18, 5541-5555 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. O. van Deventer, "Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs for ACTS-PLANET," Proc. SPIE 2919, 242-251 (1996).

Other (57)

I. Van de Voorde, "Network topologies for SuperPON," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (1997) pp. 57-58.

U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, Y. C. chung, "Maximum reach of long-reach RSOA-based WDM PON employing remote EDFA," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2011).

SARDANA EU FP7-ICT project. www.ict-sardana.eu [Online] Available:.

E. Wong, K. L. Lee, "Automatic protection, restoration and survivability of long-reach passive optical networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (2011).

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (Kluwer, 1988).

Charbonnier, N. Brochier, P. Chanclou, "(O)FDMA PON over a legacy 30 dB ODN," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2011).

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y. K. Huang, J. Yu, T. Wang, "100 km long reach upstream 36 Gb/s-OFDMA-PON over a single wavelength with source-free ONUs," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2009).

P. P. Iannone, K. C. Reichmann, "Optical access beyond 10 Gb/s PON," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010).

K. Y. Cho, "Self-polarization stabilization technique for long-reach coherent WDM PON," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2010).

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Generation of 5-Gbps QPSK signal using directly modulated RSOA for 100-km coherent WDM PON," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2011).

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direction detection," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2010).

J. M. Tang, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, E. Giacoumidis, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. Hong, C. Shu, J. Groenewald, K. Muthusamy, "Real-time optical OFDM transceivers for PON applications," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2011).

D. Qian, T. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "41.25 Gb/s real0tim OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2010).

S. Yoshima, N. Nakagawa, J. Nakagawa, K. Kitayama, "10 G-TDM-OCDMA-PON systems," Proc. OptoElectron. Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 724-725.

X. Wang, K. Matsushima, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, F. Kubota, K.-I. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of 511-chip 640 Gchip/s superstructured FBG for high performance optical code processing," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun (2004).

E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, Y. Hong, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, J. M. Tang, "First experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL-intensity modulated end-to-end real-time optical OFDM signal transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 25 km SSMFs," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2011).

M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, "Stable self-seeding RSOAs for WDM-PONs," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2011).

I. Cano, M. Omella, J. Prat, P. Poggiolini, "Colorless 10 Gbps extended reach WDM PON with low BW RSOA using MLSE," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2010).

A. Agata, Y. Horiuch, "RSOA-based 10G WDM PON using FEC and MLSE equalizers," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2010).

H. Kim, "10-Gbps upstream transmission for WDM-PON using RSOA and delay interferometer," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2011).

P. D. Townsend, G. Talli, E. K. MacHale, C. Antony, "Long reach PONs," Tech. Dig. Conf. Opt. Internet (2008) pp. 1-2.

N. Suzuki, J. Nakagawa, "First demonstration of full burst optical amplfied GEPON uplink with extended system budget of up to 128 ONU and 58 km reach," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2005).

R. Kjaer, "Bi-directoinal 120 km long reach PON link based on distributed Raman amplification," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annu. Meeting (2006).

N. Nadarajah, C. J. Chae, A. V. Tran, A. Nirmalathas, "10 Gb/s upgrade for high-split and long-reach PON using remote repeater," Tech. Dig. Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-2.

A. B. Ruffin, J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, "Purely passive long reach 10 GE-PON architecture based on duobinary signals and ultra-low loss optical fiber," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2008).

K. L. Lee, J. L. Riding, A. V. Tran, R. S. Tucker, "Extended-reach GPON for rural areas using distributed Raman amplifiers," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2009).

D. G. Mestdagh, C. M. Martin, "The Super-PON concept and its technical challenges," Proc. Int. Ifip-IEEE Conf. Broadband Commun. (1996) pp. 333-345.

Z. Al-Qazwini, H. Kim, "Line coding for downlink DML modulation in lambda-shared, RSOA-based asymmetric bidirectional WDM PONs," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (2011).

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