Abstract

We report here on the design, fabrication, and characterization of highly integrated parallel optical transceivers designed for Tb/s-class module-to-module data transfer through polymer waveguides integrated into optical printed circuit boards (o-PCBs). The parallel optical transceiver is based on a through-silicon-via silicon carrier as the platform for integration of 24-channel vertical cavity surface-emitting laser and photodiode arrays with CMOS ICs. The Si carrier also includes optical vias (holes) for optical access to conventional surface-emitting 850 nm optoelectronic devices. The 48-channel 3-D transceiver optochips are flip-chip soldered to organic carriers to form transceiver optomodules. Fully functional optomodules with 24 transmitter +24 receiver channels were assembled and characterized with transmitters operating up to 20 Gb/s/ch and receivers up to 15 Gb/s/ch. At 15 Gb/s, the 48-channel optomodules provide a bidirectional aggregate bandwidth of 360 Gb/s. In addition, o-PCBs have been developed using a 48-channel flex waveguide assembly attached to FR4 electronic boards. Incorporation of waveguide turning mirrors and lens arrays facilitates optical coupling to/from the o-PCB. Assembly of optomodules to the o-PCB using a ball grid array process provides both electrical and optical interconnections. An initial demonstration of the full module-to-module optical link achieved > 20 bidirectional links at 10 Gb/s. At 15 Gb/s, operation at a bit error ratio of < 10<sup>-12</sup> was demonstrated for 15 channels in each direction, realizing a record o-PCB link with a 225 Gb/s bidirectional aggregate data rate.

© 2011 IEEE

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2009 (3)

D. Grice, H. Brandt, C. Wright, P. McCarthy, A. Emerich, T. Schimke, C. Archer, J. Carey, P. Sanders, J. A. Fritzjunker, S. Lewis, P. Germann, "Breaking the petaflops barrier," IBM J. Res. Dev. 53, 1-16 (2009) paper 1.

C. L. Schow, F. E. Doany, C. Baks, Y. H. Kwark, D. M. Kuchta, J. A. Kash, "A single-chip CMOS-based parallel optical transceiver capable of 240 Gb/s bi-directional data rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 915-929 (2009).

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, J. A. Kash, "160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32, 345-359 (2009).

2008 (1)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, B. J. Offrein, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).

2005 (1)

P. A. Gruber, L. Belanger, G. P. Brouillette, D. H. Danovitch, J.-L. Landreville, D. T. Naugle, V. A. Oberson, D.-Y. Shih, C. L. Tessler, M. R. Turgeon, "Low-cost wafer bumping," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 621-639 (2005).

IBM J. Res. Dev. (2)

D. Grice, H. Brandt, C. Wright, P. McCarthy, A. Emerich, T. Schimke, C. Archer, J. Carey, P. Sanders, J. A. Fritzjunker, S. Lewis, P. Germann, "Breaking the petaflops barrier," IBM J. Res. Dev. 53, 1-16 (2009) paper 1.

P. A. Gruber, L. Belanger, G. P. Brouillette, D. H. Danovitch, J.-L. Landreville, D. T. Naugle, V. A. Oberson, D.-Y. Shih, C. L. Tessler, M. R. Turgeon, "Low-cost wafer bumping," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 621-639 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (2)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, B. J. Offrein, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, J. A. Kash, "160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32, 345-359 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. L. Schow, F. E. Doany, C. Baks, Y. H. Kwark, D. M. Kuchta, J. A. Kash, "A single-chip CMOS-based parallel optical transceiver capable of 240 Gb/s bi-directional data rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 915-929 (2009).

Other (17)

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Baks, R. Budd, Y.-J. Chang, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, D. Kuchta, R. John, J. A. Kash, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, "160-Gb/s bidirectional parallel optical transceiver module for board level interconnects using a single-chip CMOS IC," Proc. 57th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2007) pp. 1256-1261.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, R. Budd, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, F. Libsch, J. A. Kash, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, "Chip-to-chip board-level optical data buses," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.

R. Dangel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, G.-L. Bona, "Development of a low-cost low-loss polymer waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications," Tech. Dig. IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meet. (2004) pp. 1-2.

National Center for Computational SciencesOak RidgeTN (2010) http://www.nccs.gov/jaguar/.

National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (2010) http://www.ncsa.illinois.edu/BlueWaters/.

A. F. Benner, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, R. A. Budd, G. Hougham, B. V. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. J. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. H. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. W. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, E. Childers, "Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.

M. H. Fields, J. Foley, R. Kaneshiro, L. McColloch, D. Meadowcroft, F. W. Miller, S. Nassar, M. Robinson, H. Xu, "Transceivers and optical engines for computer and datacenter interconnects," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-2.

T. Shiraishi, T. Yagisawa, T. Ikeuchi, S. Ide, K. Tanaka, "Cost-effective on-board optical interconnection using waveguide sheet with flexible printed circuit optical engine," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2011) pp. 1-3.

H. Numata, F. Yamada, Y. Taira, S. Nakagawa, "MT-like multi-layer 48-channel polymer waveguide connector using novel passive alignment structure," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2011) pp. 1-3.

Endicott Interconnect Technologies, IncEndicottNY (2010) http://www.endicottinterconnect.com/.

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, J. U. Knickerbocker, J. A. Kash, "Terabit/s-Class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects," Proc. 60th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2010) pp. 58-65.

Emcore CorpAlbuquerqueNM (2010) http://www.emcore.com/fiber_optics/emcoreconnects.

N. Y. Li, C. L. Schow, D. M. Kuchta, F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. P. Jackson, C. Lei, "High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.

N. Y. Li, C. Xie;, C. Lei, W. Luo, X. Sun, D. Kuchta, C. Schow, F. Doany, "Development of high-speed VCSELs beyond 10 Gb/s at Emcore," SPIE Photon. San FranciscoCA (2010).

Finetech Corp., Finetech USA-EASTManchesterNH (2011) http://www.finetechusa.com/bonders/products/fineplacerr-pico-ma.html.

B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, "Organic optical waveguide fabrication in a manufacturing environment," Proc. 60th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2010) pp. 2012-2018.

MEMS Optical IncHuntsvilleAL (2010) http://www.memsoptical.com/.

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