Abstract

Next-generation optical access networks are envisioned to evolve into a converged, high-speed, multiservice platform supporting residential, business, mobile backhaul, and special purpose applications. Moreover, bandwidth demand projections suggest that terabit aggregate capacity may need to be reached in such next-generation passive optical networks (PON). To satisfy these requirements while leveraging the large investments made in existing fiber plants, a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM)-based long-reach PON architecture combined with a multiple access technology that features a passive last-mile split, large per-λ speeds, and statistical bandwidth multiplexing can be exploited. In this paper, the first terabit PON based on hybrid WDM orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) technology is proposed and experimentally verified. To enable high-speed, long-reach transmission with simplified optical network unit (ONU)-side digital signal processing, multiband OFDMA with ONU-side sub-band selectivity is proposed. Design challenges and tradeoffs between analog and digital domain sub-band combining and selection are also discussed. Finally, the experimental setup and results of the first 1.2 Tb/s (1 Tb/s after overhead) symmetric WDM-OFDMA-PON over 90 km straight single-mode fiber and 1:32 passive split, featuring multiband OFDMA, digitally selective ONUs, and a coherent-receiver OLT are presented and analyzed. By supporting up to 800 ONUs with 1.25/10 Gb/s guaranteed/peak rates and exhibiting a record rate-distance product achieved in long-reach PON, the demonstrated architecture may be viewed as promising for future converged terabit optical metro/access.

© 2011 IEEE

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  2. J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, "Next-generation PONs: An operator's view," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 5.7.4.
  3. N. Yoshimoto, "The role of advanced EPON systems and their related technologies for sustainable growth of telecom industry," Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. ShanghaiChina (2010).
  4. P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, "Optical access beyond 10 Gb/s PON," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Tu.B.3.1.
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  8. D. Piehler, "Next-generation components for optical access networks," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OThK5.
  9. J. Kelly, "Universal gigabit optical access," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OWK1.
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  20. D. Hsu, C. Wei, H. Y. Chen, J. Chen, M. Yuang, S. Lin, W. Li, "2.1-Tb/s$\times$ km OFDM long-reach PON transmission using a cost-effective electro-absorption modulator," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OMG2.
  21. I. Dedic, "High-speed CMOS DSP and data converters," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OTuN1.
  22. T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, A. Bielik, J. Rupeter, M. Möller, "DA and AD converters in SiGe technology: Speed and resolution for lltra high data rate applications," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Th.10.A.6.
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  25. A. Al Amin, S. L. Jansen, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "A hybrid IQ imbalance compensation method for optical OFDM transmission," Opt. Exp. 18, 4859-4866 (2010).
  26. B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstrations of electronic dispersion compensation for long haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 196-203 (2008).
  27. N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, T. Wang, "Orthogonal frequency division multiple access PON (OFDMA-PON) for colorless upstream transmission beyond 10 Gb/s," IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 781-790 (2010).
  28. D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y. K. Huang, J. Yu, T. Wang, "100 km long reach upstream 36 Gb/s-OFDMA-PON over a single wavelength with source-free ONUs," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 8.5.1.
  29. D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y. K. Huang, J. Hu, T. Wang, "Single-wavelength 108 Gb/s upstream OFDMA-PON transmission," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper PD3.3.
  30. N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, T. Wang, "44-Gb/s/$\lambda$, upstream OFDMA-PON transmission with polarization-insensitive source-free ONUs," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OTuO2.
  31. D. Divanc, G. Li, H. Liu, "Computationally efficient bandwidth allocation and power control for OFDMA," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 1150-1158 (2003).
  32. D. Qian, T. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "41.25 Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPD9.
  33. N. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. K. Huang, M. Cvijetic, T. Wang, "1.92 Tb/s coherent DVDM-OFDM-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split," Opt. Exp. 19, 24540-24545 (2011).
  34. R. Giddings, J. Tang, "World-first experimental demonstration of synchronous clock recovery in an 11.25 Gb/s real-time end-to-end optical OFDM system using directly modulated DFBs," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OMS4.
  35. D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu., T. Wang, "A novel OFDMA-PON architecture with source-free ONUs for next-generation optical access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1265-1267 (2009).
  36. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "20-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4 160-km SSMF enabled by RF-Pilot tone phase noise compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2007) Paper PDP15.
  37. ITU-T Recommendation G.975.1, Appendix I.9.
  38. G. Talli, D. Cotter, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source," Electron. Lett. 42, 877-878 (2006).
  39. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, S. Chi, "Rayleigh backscattering performance of OFDM-QAM in carrier distributed passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1848-1850 (2008).
  40. J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, X. Zheng, S. Mansoor, J. M. Tang, "Wavelength reused bidirectional transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in WDM-PONs incorporating SOA and RSOA intensity modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 9791-9808 (2010).

2011 (4)

D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, E. Weis, "Opportunities for next-generation optical access," IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, s16-s24 (2011).

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. M. Clarke, A. Naughton, H.-G. Krimmel, Y. Chang, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. G. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. W. Smith, D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, P. D. Townsend, "A 135-km 8192-split carrier distributed DWDM-TDMA PON with 2$\,\times\,$32$\, \times\,$10 Gb/s capacity," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 463-474 (2011).

E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, Y. Hong, C. Shu, J. M. Tang, "Real-time experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL intensity-modulated 11.25 Gb/s optical OFDM signal transmission over 25 km PON systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 2979-2988 (2011).

N. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. K. Huang, M. Cvijetic, T. Wang, "1.92 Tb/s coherent DVDM-OFDM-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split," Opt. Exp. 19, 24540-24545 (2011).

2010 (5)

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, T. Wang, "Orthogonal frequency division multiple access PON (OFDMA-PON) for colorless upstream transmission beyond 10 Gb/s," IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 781-790 (2010).

J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, X. Zheng, S. Mansoor, J. M. Tang, "Wavelength reused bidirectional transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in WDM-PONs incorporating SOA and RSOA intensity modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 9791-9808 (2010).

A. Al Amin, S. L. Jansen, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "A hybrid IQ imbalance compensation method for optical OFDM transmission," Opt. Exp. 18, 4859-4866 (2010).

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, "100 Gb/s optical access based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 70-77 (2010).

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 484-493 (2010).

2009 (3)

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu., T. Wang, "A novel OFDMA-PON architecture with source-free ONUs for next-generation optical access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1265-1267 (2009).

2008 (2)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, S. Chi, "Rayleigh backscattering performance of OFDM-QAM in carrier distributed passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1848-1850 (2008).

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstrations of electronic dispersion compensation for long haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 196-203 (2008).

2006 (2)

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 2827-2834 (2006).

G. Talli, D. Cotter, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source," Electron. Lett. 42, 877-878 (2006).

2004 (1)

F. T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. Divanc, G. Li, H. Liu, "Computationally efficient bandwidth allocation and power control for OFDMA," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 1150-1158 (2003).

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Talli, D. Cotter, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source," Electron. Lett. 42, 877-878 (2006).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, "100 Gb/s optical access based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 70-77 (2010).

D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, E. Weis, "Opportunities for next-generation optical access," IEEE Commun. Mag. 49, s16-s24 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, F. Y. Shih, S. Chi, "Rayleigh backscattering performance of OFDM-QAM in carrier distributed passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1848-1850 (2008).

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu., T. Wang, "A novel OFDMA-PON architecture with source-free ONUs for next-generation optical access networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1265-1267 (2009).

IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, T. Wang, "Orthogonal frequency division multiple access PON (OFDMA-PON) for colorless upstream transmission beyond 10 Gb/s," IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 781-790 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

D. Divanc, G. Li, H. Liu, "Computationally efficient bandwidth allocation and power control for OFDMA," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2, 1150-1158 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol (1)

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 2827-2834 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

F. T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. M. Clarke, A. Naughton, H.-G. Krimmel, Y. Chang, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. G. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. W. Smith, D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, P. D. Townsend, "A 135-km 8192-split carrier distributed DWDM-TDMA PON with 2$\,\times\,$32$\, \times\,$10 Gb/s capacity," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 463-474 (2011).

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 484-493 (2010).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstrations of electronic dispersion compensation for long haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 196-203 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (4)

A. Al Amin, S. L. Jansen, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "A hybrid IQ imbalance compensation method for optical OFDM transmission," Opt. Exp. 18, 4859-4866 (2010).

N. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. K. Huang, M. Cvijetic, T. Wang, "1.92 Tb/s coherent DVDM-OFDM-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split," Opt. Exp. 19, 24540-24545 (2011).

J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, X. Zheng, S. Mansoor, J. M. Tang, "Wavelength reused bidirectional transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in WDM-PONs incorporating SOA and RSOA intensity modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 9791-9808 (2010).

E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, Y. Hong, C. Shu, J. M. Tang, "Real-time experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL intensity-modulated 11.25 Gb/s optical OFDM signal transmission over 25 km PON systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 2979-2988 (2011).

Other (22)

K. Kanonakis, I. Tomkos, T. Pfeiffer, J. Prat, P. Kourtessis, "ACCORDANCE: A novel OFDMA-PON paradigm for ultrahigh capacity converged wireline-wireless access networks," Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw. MunichGermany (2010) Paper Tu. A1. 2.

D. Hsu, C. Wei, H. Y. Chen, J. Chen, M. Yuang, S. Lin, W. Li, "2.1-Tb/s$\times$ km OFDM long-reach PON transmission using a cost-effective electro-absorption modulator," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OMG2.

I. Dedic, "High-speed CMOS DSP and data converters," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OTuN1.

T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, A. Bielik, J. Rupeter, M. Möller, "DA and AD converters in SiGe technology: Speed and resolution for lltra high data rate applications," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Th.10.A.6.

X. Z. Qiu, C. Mélange, T. De Ridder, B. Baekelandt, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, J. Vandewege, "Evolution of burst mode receivers," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 7.5.1.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, L. Spiekman, "Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPD6.

A. Gladisch, C. Lange, R. Leppla, "Power efficiency of optical versus electronic access networks," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Tu.4.A.2.

D. Piehler, "Next-generation components for optical access networks," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OThK5.

J. Kelly, "Universal gigabit optical access," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OWK1.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Huang, D. Qian, T. Wang, "1.2 Tb/s symmetric WDM-OFDMA-PON over 90 km straight SSMF and 1:32 passive split with digitally-selective ONUs and coherent receiver OLT," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPD7.

J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, "Next-generation PONs: An operator's view," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 5.7.4.

N. Yoshimoto, "The role of advanced EPON systems and their related technologies for sustainable growth of telecom industry," Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. ShanghaiChina (2010).

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, "Optical access beyond 10 Gb/s PON," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Tu.B.3.1.

N. Cvijetic, "OFDM for next-generation optical access networks," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Tutorial OMG1.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "20-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4 160-km SSMF enabled by RF-Pilot tone phase noise compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2007) Paper PDP15.

ITU-T Recommendation G.975.1, Appendix I.9.

R. Giddings, J. Tang, "World-first experimental demonstration of synchronous clock recovery in an 11.25 Gb/s real-time end-to-end optical OFDM system using directly modulated DFBs," IEEE/OSA Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OMS4.

D. Qian, T. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "41.25 Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPD9.

S. Kim, H. Kimura, H. Hadama, "Cyclic prefix free 10-Gb/s OFDM for a DML-based long-reach optical access using joint time and frequency domain equalization algorithm," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OTuK4.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y. K. Huang, J. Yu, T. Wang, "100 km long reach upstream 36 Gb/s-OFDMA-PON over a single wavelength with source-free ONUs," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 8.5.1.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, Y. K. Huang, J. Hu, T. Wang, "Single-wavelength 108 Gb/s upstream OFDMA-PON transmission," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper PD3.3.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, T. Wang, "44-Gb/s/$\lambda$, upstream OFDMA-PON transmission with polarization-insensitive source-free ONUs," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OTuO2.

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