Abstract

High-performance computing systems are of steadily growing interest to provide new levels of computational capability for an increasing range of applications. The growing use of and dependence on optical interconnects to meet these system's scaling bandwidth demands has given rise to “computercom” as a distinct market segment, alongside the traditional datacom and telecom markets. This paper discusses the trends, requirements, tradeoffs, and potential technologies for this market.

© 2011 IEEE

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2011 (3)

A. Mutig, D. Bimberg, "Progress on high-speed 980 nm VCSELs for short-reach optical interconnects," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2011, 1-15 (2011) Article ID 290508.

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. A. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, "81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 1-3 (2011).

B. Lee, "Demonstration of a digital CMOS driver co-designed and integrated with a broadband silicon photonic switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1136-1142 (2011).

2010 (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. Vlasov, "Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects," Nature 464, 80-84 (2010).

2009 (3)

J. Van Campenhout, W. Green, S. Assefa, Y. Vlasov, "Low-power, 2$\,\times\,$2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks," Opt. Exp. 17, 24020-24029 (2009).

F. D. Doany, "160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32, 345-359 (2009).

D. G. Kam, M. B. Ritter, T. J. Beukema, J. F. Bulzachelli, P. K. Pepeljugoski, Y. H. Kwark, L. Shan, X. Gu, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, G. Hougham, C. Schuster, R. Rimolo-Donadio, B. Wu, "Is 25 Gb/s on-board signaling viable?," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32, 328-344 (2009).

2008 (2)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beveler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, B. J. Offrein, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, "The data vortex optical packet switched interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1777-1789 (2008).

2006 (1)

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

2005 (3)

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos;, E. de Groot, G. M. Flower, G. H. Rankin, A. J. Schmit, K. D. Djordjev, M. R. T. Tan, A. Tandon, W. Gong, R. P. Tella, B. Law, L.-K. Chia, D. W. Dolfi, "Demonstration of a compact low-power 250-Gb/s parallel-WDM optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 220-222 (2005).

A. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Kash, D. Kuchta, M. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Develop. 49, 755-775 (2005).

A. Gara, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, M. E. Giampapa, R. A. Haring, P. Heidelberger, D. Hoenicke, G. V. Kopcsay, T. A. Liebsch, M. Ohmacht, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, P. Vranas, "Overview of the blue Gene/L system architecture," IBM J. Res. Develop. 49, 195-212 (2005).

2003 (2)

P. Pepeljugoski, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, A. Risteski, "Modeling and simulation of the next generation multimode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1242-1255 (2003).

P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser optimized 50-um multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003).

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

A. Mutig, D. Bimberg, "Progress on high-speed 980 nm VCSELs for short-reach optical interconnects," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2011, 1-15 (2011) Article ID 290508.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Moser, W. Hofmann, P. Wolf, J. A. Lott, G. Larisch, A. Payusov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, "81 fJ/bit energy-to-data ratio of 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 1-3 (2011).

IBM J. Res. Develop. (2)

A. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Kash, D. Kuchta, M. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Develop. 49, 755-775 (2005).

A. Gara, M. A. Blumrich, D. Chen, G. L.-T. Chiu, P. Coteus, M. E. Giampapa, R. A. Haring, P. Heidelberger, D. Hoenicke, G. V. Kopcsay, T. A. Liebsch, M. Ohmacht, B. D. Steinmacher-Burow, T. Takken, P. Vranas, "Overview of the blue Gene/L system architecture," IBM J. Res. Develop. 49, 195-212 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos;, E. de Groot, G. M. Flower, G. H. Rankin, A. J. Schmit, K. D. Djordjev, M. R. T. Tan, A. Tandon, W. Gong, R. P. Tella, B. Law, L.-K. Chia, D. W. Dolfi, "Demonstration of a compact low-power 250-Gb/s parallel-WDM optical interconnect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 220-222 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (3)

D. G. Kam, M. B. Ritter, T. J. Beukema, J. F. Bulzachelli, P. K. Pepeljugoski, Y. H. Kwark, L. Shan, X. Gu, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, G. Hougham, C. Schuster, R. Rimolo-Donadio, B. Wu, "Is 25 Gb/s on-board signaling viable?," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32, 328-344 (2009).

F. D. Doany, "160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32, 345-359 (2009).

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beveler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, B. J. Offrein, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

P. Pepeljugoski, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, A. Risteski, "Modeling and simulation of the next generation multimode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1242-1255 (2003).

P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser optimized 50-um multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003).

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, "The data vortex optical packet switched interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1777-1789 (2008).

B. Lee, "Demonstration of a digital CMOS driver co-designed and integrated with a broadband silicon photonic switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1136-1142 (2011).

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, Y. Vlasov, "Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects," Nature 464, 80-84 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. Van Campenhout, W. Green, S. Assefa, Y. Vlasov, "Low-power, 2$\,\times\,$2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks," Opt. Exp. 17, 24020-24029 (2009).

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).

Other (28)

B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, J. Van Campenhout, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylakov, S. Assefa, M. Yang, J. Rosenberg, J. A. Kash, Y. A. Vlasov, "Comparison of ring resonator and Mach–Zehnder photonic switches integrated with digital CMOS drivers," Proc. 23rd Annu. Meet. IEEE Photon. Soc. (2010) pp. 327-328.

H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, J. Costa, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, J. Yao, J. Li, D. Patil, F. Liu, R. Ho, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, T. K. Rai, J. G. Mitchell, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Cunningham, "Hybrid integration of silicon nanophotonics with 40 nm-CMOS VLSI drivers and receivers," Proc. IEEE 61st Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2011) pp. 829-835.

L. Schares, X. J. Zhang, R. Wagle, D. Rajan, P. Selo, S. P. Chang, J. Giles, K. Hildrum, D. Kuchta, J. Wolf, E. Schenfeld, "A reconfigurable interconnect fabric with optical circuit switch and software optimizer for stream computing system," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009) pp. 1-3.

A. Vahdat, H. Liu, X. Zhao, C. Johnson, "The emerging optical data center," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. (2011) pp. 1-3.

R. Luijten, "The OSMOSIS optical packet switch for supercomputers," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009) pp. 1-3.

F. Horst, "Silicon integrated waveguide devices for filtering and wavelength demultiplexing," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.

F. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. Budd, C. Baks, R. Dngel, R. John, F. Libsch, J. A. Kash, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, "Terabit/sec-class board-level optical interconnects through polymer waveguides using 24-channel bidirectional transceiver modules," Proc. IEEE 61st Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2011) pp. 790-797.

D. Guckenberger, S. Abdalla, C. Bradbury, J. Clymore, P. De Dobbelaere, D. Folz, S. Gloeckner, M. Harrison, S. Jackson, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, C. Lo, M. Mack, G. Masini, A. Mekis, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, J. Redman, S. Sahni, B. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, "Advantages of CMOS photonics for future transceiver applications," Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-6.

Y. A. Vlasov, S. Assefa, W. M. J. Green, M. Yang, C. L. Schow, A. Rylyakov, "CMOS integrated nanophotonics: Enabling technology for exascale computer systems," SEMICON, SEMI Technol. Symp. TokyoJapan (2010).

D. Van Thourhout, "Si photonics," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010).

D. A. B. Miller, "Optical interconnects," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010).

B. G. Lee, D. M. Kuchta, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Baks, R. John, P. Pepeljugoski, T. F. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, G. E. Oulundsen, D. S. Vaidva, W. Luo, N. Li, "Multimode transceiver for interfacing to multicore graded-index fiber capable of carrying 120-Gb/s over 100-m lengths," Proc. 23rd Annu. Meet. IEEE Photon. Soc. (2010) pp. 564-565.

F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, C. L. Schow, C. K. Tsang, C. Baks, Y. Kwark, R. John, J. U. Knickerbocker, J. A. Kash, "Terabit/s-class 24-channel bidirectional optical transceiver module based on TSV Si carrier for board-level interconnects," Proc. Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2010) pp. 58-65.

D. Jubin, R. Dangel, N. Meier, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, J. Weiss, R. Beyeler, B. J. Offrein, "Polymer waveguide-based multilayer optical connector," Proc. Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (2010) pp. 76070K-1-76070K-9.

D. Kuchta, VCSELs—Fundamentals, Technology and Applications of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Springer-Verlag, 2011).

R. Johnson, D. Kuchta, "30 Gb/s directly modulated 850 nm datacom VCSELs," presented at the Conf. Lasers ElectroOpt. (CLEO) San FranciscoCA (2008) post deadline paper.

M. Fields, "Transceivers and optical engines for computer and datacenter interconnects," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-2.

F. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, A. V. Rylakov, C. Jahnes, Y. Kwark, C. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, J. A. KAsh, "Dense 24 TX + 24 RX fiber-coupled optical module based on a holey CMOS transceiver IC," Proc. 60th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (ECTC) (2010) pp. 247-255.

D. Hanson, “Case For Using 980 nm (Rather Than 850 nm) VCSELs For Serial 10 Gb/s Links With New Higher-Bandwidth 50 MMF,” (1999) http://www.ieee802.org/3/10G_study/public/july99/hanson_1_0799.pdf.

K. Takaki, S. Imaia, S. Kamivab, H. Shimizua, Y. Kawakita, K. Hiraiwa, T. Takagia, H. Shimizua, J. Yoshida, T. Ishikawab, N. Tsukijia, A. Kasukawa, "1060 nm VCSEL for inter-chip optical interconnection," Proc. Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (2011) pp. 1-6.

J. K. Guenter, B. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne, "Phenomenological study of VCSEL wearout reliability," Proc. Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (2011) pp. 795209-1-795209-8.

C. Schow, "Transmitter pre-distortion for simultaneous improvements in bit-rate, sensitivity, jitter, and power efficiency in 20 Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links," Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf./ Opt. Fiber Conf. Expo. (2011) pp. 1-3.

D. Kuchta, "Advances in high speed parallel links for computational systems," Proc. IEEE Syst. Packag. Japan Workshop (2010).

Y. Ajima, Y. Takagi, T. Inoue, S. Hiramoto, T. Shimizu, "The tofu interconnect," Proc. 19th IEEE Annu. Symp. High Perform. Interconnects (2011) pp. 87-94.

C. DeCusatis, C. J. S. DeCusatis, Fiber Optic Essentials (Academic, 2006) pp. 154-155.

http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/power/hardware/775/.

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