Abstract

We present the principle, implementation, and performance of a recently introduced high-sensitivity modulation format based on the combined use of polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PDM-QPSK, or PQ) and m-ary pulse-position modulation (m-PPM). This novel modulation format, termed PQ-mPPM, offers high receiver sensitivity in optically preamplified receivers. We study the sensitivity of the PQ-mPPM format both analytically and experimentally, and compare it to common modulation formats such as PDM-QPSK, m-PPM, differential phase-shift keying, and polarization-switched QPSK. The bandwidth expansion factor of this format is also discussed. A record sensitivity of 3.5 photons per bit at BER = 10<sup>-3</sup> is experimentally demonstrated at 2.5 Gb/s with a novel pilot-assisted digital coherent-detection scheme, outperforming PDM-QPSK by about 3 dB.

© 2011 IEEE

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  22. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, E. C. Burrows, P. J. Winzer, "Demonstration of 2.7-PPB receiver sensitivity using PDM-QPSK with 4-PPM and unrepeatered transmission over a single 370-km unamplified ultra-large-area fiber span," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper Tu.3.B.4.

2011 (1)

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 483-490 (2011).

2009 (2)

M. Karlsson, E. Agrell, "Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?," Opt. Exp. 17, 10814-10819 (2009).

R. Kudo, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "Coherent optical single carrier transmission using overlap frequency domain equalization for long-haul optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3721-3728 (2009).

2008 (3)

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, Q. Yang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Has its time come?," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 234-255 (2008).

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).

2007 (1)

D. O. Caplan, "Laser communication transmitter and receiver design," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 4 4, 225-362 (2007).

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

N. W. Spellmeyer, J. C. Gottschalk, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, "High-sensitivity 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK with forward error correction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1579-1581 (2004).

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

N. W. Spellmeyer, J. C. Gottschalk, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, "High-sensitivity 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK with forward error correction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1579-1581 (2004).

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

R. Kudo, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "Coherent optical single carrier transmission using overlap frequency domain equalization for long-haul optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3721-3728 (2009).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 483-490 (2011).

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).

J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 4 (1)

D. O. Caplan, "Laser communication transmitter and receiver design," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 4 4, 225-362 (2007).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Exp. (2)

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

M. Karlsson, E. Agrell, "Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?," Opt. Exp. 17, 10814-10819 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (12)

D. O. Caplan, B. S. Robinson, R. J. Murphy, M. L. Stevens, "Demonstration of 2.5 Gslot/sec optically-preamplified M-PPM with 4 photons/bit receiver sensitivity," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Postdeadline Paper PDP32.

D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, B. S. Robinson, "Free-space laser communications: Global communications and beyond," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Tutorial, Paper 9.6.1.

H. Bülow, E. Masalkina, "Coded modulation in optical communications," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2011) Paper OThO1.

X. Liu, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, S. Chandrasekhar, "Demonstration of record sensitivity in an optically pre-amplified receiver by combining PDM-QPSK and 16-PPM with pilot-assisted digital coherent detection," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2011) Paper PDB1.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Leven, Optical Fiber Telecommunications V B, Systems and Networks (Academic, 2008).

M. Karlsson, E. Agrell, "Generalized pulse-position modulation for optical power-efficient communication," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. GenevaSwitzerland (2011) Paper Tu.6.B.6.

D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, R. J. Murphy, "Demonstration of optical DPSK communication with 25 photons/bit receiver sensitivity," Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. Long BeachCA (2006) Paper CFH5.

N. W. Spellmeyer, S. L. Bernstein, D. M. Boroson, D. O. Caplan, A. S. Fletcher, S. A. Hamilton, R. J. Murphy, M. Norvig, H. G. Rao, B. S. Robinson, S. J. Savage, R. T. Schulein, S. T. Stevens, J. P. Wang, "Demonstration of multi-rate thresholded preamplified 16-ary pulse-position-modulation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThT5.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. H. Wood, R. W. Tkach, E. C. Burrows, P. J. Winzer, "Demonstration of 2.7-PPB receiver sensitivity using PDM-QPSK with 4-PPM and unrepeatered transmission over a single 370-km unamplified ultra-large-area fiber span," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper Tu.3.B.4.

C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) performance of a coherent 40 Gbit/s dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) transceiver," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2007) Postdeadline Paper PDP 16.

K. Kikuchi, Optical Fiber Telecommunications V B, Systems and Networks (Academic, 2008).

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