Abstract

The effect of applying feed-forward equalization (FFE) on the transmitter side is studied for three different full optical links. In contrast to all previous works, the FFE settings are optimized for a complete link, rather than just the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser output. The approach results in dramatic improvements in total link performance: >6 dB in sensitivity, 3X in timing margin, and 2X in power efficiency at 15 Gb/s, and a record 5.7 pJ/bit at 20 Gb/s.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. Y.-C. Chang, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with 35 Gbit/s error-free operation," Elecron. Lett. 43, 1022-1023 (2007).
  2. R. H. Johnson, D. Kuchta, "30 Gb/s directly modulated 850 nm datacom VCSELs," the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. San JoseCA (2008).
  3. L. Illing, M. Kennel, "Shaping current waveforms for direct modulation of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 40, 445-452 (2004).
  4. N. Dokhane, G. L. Lippi, "Faster modulation of single-mode semiconductor lasers through patterned current switching: Numerical investigation," Proc. Enst. Elect. Eng.—Optoelectronics 151, 61-68 (2004).
  5. A. Kern, A. Chandrakasan, I. Young, "18 Gb/s optical IO: VCSEL driver and TIA in 90 nm CMOS," Proc. Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. (2007) pp. 276-277.
  6. S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, M. Horowitz, "A 90 nm CMOS 16 Gb/s transceiver for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 1235-1246 (2008).
  7. I. A. Young, "Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235-248 (2010).
  8. C. Kromer, "A 100-mW 4$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2667-2679 (2005).
  9. B. G. Lee, "Low-power CMOS-driven transmitters and receivers," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (2010) pp. 1-2.
  10. M. Bruensteiner, "3.3-V CMOS pre-equalization VCSEL transmitter for gigabit multimode fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1301-1303 (1999).
  11. Y. Tsunoda, "25-Gb/s transmitter for optical interconnection with 10-Gb/s VCSEL using dual peak-tunable pre-emphasis," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OThZ2.
  12. D. Kucharski, "A 20 Gb/s VCSEL driver with pre-emphasis and regulated output impedance in 0.13 $\mu$m CMOS," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2005) pp. 222-594.
  13. S. P. Voinigescu, "Circuits and technologies for highly integrated optical networking ICs at 10 Gb/s to 40 Gb/s," Proc. IEEE Custom Integr. Circuits Conf. (2001) pp. 331-338.
  14. D. Watanabe, "CMOS optical 4-PAM VCSEL driver with modal-dispersion equalizer for 10 Gb/s 500 m MMF transmission," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2009) pp. 106-107.
  15. N. Y. Li, "High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OTuP2.
  16. C. L. Schow, "A 24-channel, 300 Gb/s, 8.2 pJ/bit, full-duplex fiber-coupled optical transceiver module based on a single “Holey” CMOS IC," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 542-553 (2011).

2011 (1)

C. L. Schow, "A 24-channel, 300 Gb/s, 8.2 pJ/bit, full-duplex fiber-coupled optical transceiver module based on a single “Holey” CMOS IC," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 542-553 (2011).

2010 (1)

I. A. Young, "Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235-248 (2010).

2008 (1)

S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, M. Horowitz, "A 90 nm CMOS 16 Gb/s transceiver for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 1235-1246 (2008).

2007 (1)

Y.-C. Chang, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with 35 Gbit/s error-free operation," Elecron. Lett. 43, 1022-1023 (2007).

2005 (1)

C. Kromer, "A 100-mW 4$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2667-2679 (2005).

2004 (2)

L. Illing, M. Kennel, "Shaping current waveforms for direct modulation of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 40, 445-452 (2004).

N. Dokhane, G. L. Lippi, "Faster modulation of single-mode semiconductor lasers through patterned current switching: Numerical investigation," Proc. Enst. Elect. Eng.—Optoelectronics 151, 61-68 (2004).

1999 (1)

M. Bruensteiner, "3.3-V CMOS pre-equalization VCSEL transmitter for gigabit multimode fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1301-1303 (1999).

Elecron. Lett. (1)

Y.-C. Chang, "High-efficiency, high-speed VCSELs with 35 Gbit/s error-free operation," Elecron. Lett. 43, 1022-1023 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Illing, M. Kennel, "Shaping current waveforms for direct modulation of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 40, 445-452 (2004).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (3)

S. Palermo, A. Emami-Neyestanak, M. Horowitz, "A 90 nm CMOS 16 Gb/s transceiver for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 1235-1246 (2008).

I. A. Young, "Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 235-248 (2010).

C. Kromer, "A 100-mW 4$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2667-2679 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Bruensteiner, "3.3-V CMOS pre-equalization VCSEL transmitter for gigabit multimode fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1301-1303 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. L. Schow, "A 24-channel, 300 Gb/s, 8.2 pJ/bit, full-duplex fiber-coupled optical transceiver module based on a single “Holey” CMOS IC," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 542-553 (2011).

Proc. Enst. Elect. Eng.—Optoelectronics (1)

N. Dokhane, G. L. Lippi, "Faster modulation of single-mode semiconductor lasers through patterned current switching: Numerical investigation," Proc. Enst. Elect. Eng.—Optoelectronics 151, 61-68 (2004).

Other (8)

A. Kern, A. Chandrakasan, I. Young, "18 Gb/s optical IO: VCSEL driver and TIA in 90 nm CMOS," Proc. Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. (2007) pp. 276-277.

R. H. Johnson, D. Kuchta, "30 Gb/s directly modulated 850 nm datacom VCSELs," the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. San JoseCA (2008).

B. G. Lee, "Low-power CMOS-driven transmitters and receivers," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (2010) pp. 1-2.

Y. Tsunoda, "25-Gb/s transmitter for optical interconnection with 10-Gb/s VCSEL using dual peak-tunable pre-emphasis," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OThZ2.

D. Kucharski, "A 20 Gb/s VCSEL driver with pre-emphasis and regulated output impedance in 0.13 $\mu$m CMOS," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2005) pp. 222-594.

S. P. Voinigescu, "Circuits and technologies for highly integrated optical networking ICs at 10 Gb/s to 40 Gb/s," Proc. IEEE Custom Integr. Circuits Conf. (2001) pp. 331-338.

D. Watanabe, "CMOS optical 4-PAM VCSEL driver with modal-dispersion equalizer for 10 Gb/s 500 m MMF transmission," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2009) pp. 106-107.

N. Y. Li, "High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OTuP2.

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