Abstract

We present theoretical analysis of simultaneous photonic frequency downconversion, based on four-wave mixing (FWM), and optical subcarrier modulation in an electroabsorption modulator (EAM) for broadband millimeter wave (mm-wave) over fiber uplinks. A model of FWM generation in an EAM is established. The FWM efficiency with an EAM at dc bias with and without RF modulation is analyzed, including the impact of bias voltage, modulation voltage, and frequency detuning. The calculated FWM efficiency agrees well with the measured. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of photonic frequency downconverted RF signal is also analyzed, considering the nonlinear distortion due to the EAM nonlinearities. Moreover, calculated error vector magnitude using theoretical SNR is compared with the measured for multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultrawideband mm-wave signals.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. J. Yu, G. Chang, Z. Jia, A. Chowdhury, M. Huang, H. Chien, Y. Huseh, W. Jian, C. Liu, Z. Dong, "Cost-effective optical millimeter technologies and field demonstrations for very high throughput wireless over fiber access systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2376-2397 (2010).
  2. H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, S. Banda, "Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 40, 2285-2293 (1992).
  3. A. J. Seeds, "Microwave photonics," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 877-887 (2002).
  4. U. Gliese, S. Nørskov, T. N. Nielsen, "Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).
  5. G. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).
  6. B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, M. Mohamed, K. Wu, "Pre-compensated optical double-sideband subcarrier modulation Immune to fiber chromatic-dispersion-induced radio frequency power fading," OSA/IEEE J. Optical Commun. Netw. 1, 331-342 (2009).
  7. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1410-1415 (1997).
  8. M. Tsuchiya, T. Hoshida, "Nonlinear photodetection scheme and its system applications to fiber-optic millimeter-wave wireless down-links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1342-1350 (1999).
  9. M. Ogusu, K. Inagaki, Y. Mizuguchi, T. Ohira, "Carrier generation and data transmission on millimeter-wave bands using two-mode locked Fabry-Perot slave lasers," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 382-391 (2003).
  10. T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, Y. Ogawa, "Fiber-optic millimeter-wave uplink system incorporating remotely fed 60-GHz-band optical pilot tone," IEEE Trans. Microw .Theory Tech. 47, 1332-1337 (1999).
  11. Y.-K. Seo, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, "Photonic frequency upconversion efficiencies in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 751-753 (2003).
  12. S. Jun-Hyuk, C. Choi, Y. Kang, Y. Chung, J. Kim, W. Choi, "SOA-EAM frequency up/down-converters for 60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber systems," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 959-966 (2006).
  13. B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, K. Wu, "Photonic down-conversion of millimeter wave multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband using four wave mixing in an electro-absorption modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1987-1993 (2010).
  14. C. Sui, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, L. Wu, Y. Shen, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, Q. Nie, "Impact of electro-absorption modulator integrated laser on MB-OFDM ultra-wideband signals over fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3548-3555 (2010).
  15. S. Højfeldt, J. Mørk, "Modeling of carrier dynamics in quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1265-1276 (2002).
  16. T. Mori, H. Kawaguchi, "Characteristics of nondegenerate four-wave mixing in electro-absorption modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 869-871 (2004).
  17. H. Kuwatsuka, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, "Enhancement of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in compressively strained quantum wells under the population inversion condition," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1817-1825 (1999).
  18. A. D'Ottavi, P. Spano, G. Hunziker, R. Paiella, R. Dall'Ara, G. Guekos, K. J. Vahara, "Wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s by four-wave mixing over a 30-nm interval," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 952-954 (1997).
  19. K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, M. Tsurusawa, M. Usami, "80 Gbit/s wavelength conversion using MQW electro-absorption modulator in delayed-interferometric configuration," Electron. Lett. 39, 792-794 (2003).
  20. M. Sakib, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, M. Mohamed, W. Jiang, K. Wu, D. Shen, "Impact of optical transmission on multiband OFDM ultra-wideband wireless system with fiber distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4112-4123 (2009).
  21. A. Georgiadis, "Gain, phase imbalance, and phase noise effects on error vector magnitude," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 53, 443-449 (2004).

2010

J. Yu, G. Chang, Z. Jia, A. Chowdhury, M. Huang, H. Chien, Y. Huseh, W. Jian, C. Liu, Z. Dong, "Cost-effective optical millimeter technologies and field demonstrations for very high throughput wireless over fiber access systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2376-2397 (2010).

B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, K. Wu, "Photonic down-conversion of millimeter wave multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband using four wave mixing in an electro-absorption modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1987-1993 (2010).

C. Sui, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, L. Wu, Y. Shen, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, Q. Nie, "Impact of electro-absorption modulator integrated laser on MB-OFDM ultra-wideband signals over fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3548-3555 (2010).

2009

B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, M. Mohamed, K. Wu, "Pre-compensated optical double-sideband subcarrier modulation Immune to fiber chromatic-dispersion-induced radio frequency power fading," OSA/IEEE J. Optical Commun. Netw. 1, 331-342 (2009).

M. Sakib, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, M. Mohamed, W. Jiang, K. Wu, D. Shen, "Impact of optical transmission on multiband OFDM ultra-wideband wireless system with fiber distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4112-4123 (2009).

2006

S. Jun-Hyuk, C. Choi, Y. Kang, Y. Chung, J. Kim, W. Choi, "SOA-EAM frequency up/down-converters for 60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber systems," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 959-966 (2006).

2004

T. Mori, H. Kawaguchi, "Characteristics of nondegenerate four-wave mixing in electro-absorption modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 869-871 (2004).

A. Georgiadis, "Gain, phase imbalance, and phase noise effects on error vector magnitude," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 53, 443-449 (2004).

2003

K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, M. Tsurusawa, M. Usami, "80 Gbit/s wavelength conversion using MQW electro-absorption modulator in delayed-interferometric configuration," Electron. Lett. 39, 792-794 (2003).

Y.-K. Seo, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, "Photonic frequency upconversion efficiencies in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 751-753 (2003).

M. Ogusu, K. Inagaki, Y. Mizuguchi, T. Ohira, "Carrier generation and data transmission on millimeter-wave bands using two-mode locked Fabry-Perot slave lasers," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 382-391 (2003).

2002

S. Højfeldt, J. Mørk, "Modeling of carrier dynamics in quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1265-1276 (2002).

A. J. Seeds, "Microwave photonics," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 877-887 (2002).

1999

M. Tsuchiya, T. Hoshida, "Nonlinear photodetection scheme and its system applications to fiber-optic millimeter-wave wireless down-links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1342-1350 (1999).

H. Kuwatsuka, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, "Enhancement of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in compressively strained quantum wells under the population inversion condition," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1817-1825 (1999).

T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, Y. Ogawa, "Fiber-optic millimeter-wave uplink system incorporating remotely fed 60-GHz-band optical pilot tone," IEEE Trans. Microw .Theory Tech. 47, 1332-1337 (1999).

1997

A. D'Ottavi, P. Spano, G. Hunziker, R. Paiella, R. Dall'Ara, G. Guekos, K. J. Vahara, "Wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s by four-wave mixing over a 30-nm interval," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 952-954 (1997).

G. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1410-1415 (1997).

1996

U. Gliese, S. Nørskov, T. N. Nielsen, "Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).

1992

H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, S. Banda, "Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 40, 2285-2293 (1992).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Mori, H. Kawaguchi, "Characteristics of nondegenerate four-wave mixing in electro-absorption modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 869-871 (2004).

Electron. Lett.

K. Nishimura, R. Inohara, M. Tsurusawa, M. Usami, "80 Gbit/s wavelength conversion using MQW electro-absorption modulator in delayed-interferometric configuration," Electron. Lett. 39, 792-794 (2003).

G. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fiber-radio systems," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. Kuwatsuka, T. Simoyama, H. Ishikawa, "Enhancement of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in compressively strained quantum wells under the population inversion condition," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1817-1825 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

S. Højfeldt, J. Mørk, "Modeling of carrier dynamics in quantum-well electroabsorption modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1265-1276 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. D'Ottavi, P. Spano, G. Hunziker, R. Paiella, R. Dall'Ara, G. Guekos, K. J. Vahara, "Wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s by four-wave mixing over a 30-nm interval," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 952-954 (1997).

Y.-K. Seo, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, "Photonic frequency upconversion efficiencies in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 751-753 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Microw .Theory Tech.

T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, Y. Ogawa, "Fiber-optic millimeter-wave uplink system incorporating remotely fed 60-GHz-band optical pilot tone," IEEE Trans. Microw .Theory Tech. 47, 1332-1337 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Overcoming chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1410-1415 (1997).

M. Tsuchiya, T. Hoshida, "Nonlinear photodetection scheme and its system applications to fiber-optic millimeter-wave wireless down-links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1342-1350 (1999).

M. Ogusu, K. Inagaki, Y. Mizuguchi, T. Ohira, "Carrier generation and data transmission on millimeter-wave bands using two-mode locked Fabry-Perot slave lasers," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 382-391 (2003).

H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, S. Banda, "Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 40, 2285-2293 (1992).

A. J. Seeds, "Microwave photonics," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 877-887 (2002).

U. Gliese, S. Nørskov, T. N. Nielsen, "Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).

S. Jun-Hyuk, C. Choi, Y. Kang, Y. Chung, J. Kim, W. Choi, "SOA-EAM frequency up/down-converters for 60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber systems," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 959-966 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.

A. Georgiadis, "Gain, phase imbalance, and phase noise effects on error vector magnitude," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 53, 443-449 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol.

B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, K. Wu, "Photonic down-conversion of millimeter wave multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband using four wave mixing in an electro-absorption modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1987-1993 (2010).

C. Sui, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, L. Wu, Y. Shen, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, Q. Nie, "Impact of electro-absorption modulator integrated laser on MB-OFDM ultra-wideband signals over fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3548-3555 (2010).

M. Sakib, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, M. Mohamed, W. Jiang, K. Wu, D. Shen, "Impact of optical transmission on multiband OFDM ultra-wideband wireless system with fiber distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4112-4123 (2009).

J. Yu, G. Chang, Z. Jia, A. Chowdhury, M. Huang, H. Chien, Y. Huseh, W. Jian, C. Liu, Z. Dong, "Cost-effective optical millimeter technologies and field demonstrations for very high throughput wireless over fiber access systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2376-2397 (2010).

OSA/IEEE J. Optical Commun. Netw.

B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, M. Mohamed, K. Wu, "Pre-compensated optical double-sideband subcarrier modulation Immune to fiber chromatic-dispersion-induced radio frequency power fading," OSA/IEEE J. Optical Commun. Netw. 1, 331-342 (2009).

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