Abstract

As 100-Gb/s coherent systems based on polarization- division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK), with aggregate wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) capacities close to 10 Tb/s, are getting widely deployed, the use of high-spectral-efficiency quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) to increase both per-channel interface rates and aggregate WDM capacities is the next evolutionary step. In this paper we review high-spectral-efficiency optical modulation formats for use in digital coherent systems. We look at fundamental as well as at technological scaling trends and highlight important trade-offs pertaining to the design and performance of coherent higher-order QAM transponders.

© 2012 IEEE

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2012 (16)

M. A. Taubenblatt, "Optical interconnects for high-performance computing," J. Lightw Technol. 30, 448-457 (2012).

Y. A. Vlasov, "Silicon CMOS-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100 G," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, S67-S72 (2012).

X. Liu, "Demonstration of record sensitivities in optically preamplified receivers by combining PDM-QPSK and M-ary pulse-position modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 406-413 (2012).

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, "OFDM based superchannel transmission technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 3816-3823 (2012).

S. Kilmurray, "Comparison of the nonlinear transmission performance of quasi-Nyquist WDM and reduced guard interval OFDM," Opt. Exp. 20, 4198-4205 (2012).

T. Wang, G. Wellbrock, O. Ishida, "Optical communications supplement next generation optical transport beyond 100G," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, s2-s72 (2012).

I. Tomkos, B. Mukherjee, S. K. Korotky, R. S. Tucker, L. Lunardi, "The evolution of optical networking," Proc. IEEE 100, 1017-1022 (2012).

G. Raybon, "All-ETDM 80-Gbaud (640-Gb/s) PDM 16-QAM generation and coherent detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1328-1330 (2012).

M. Nakazawa, "Ultrafast coherent optical transmission," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 363-376 (2012).

A. H. Gnauck, "Generation and transmission of 21.4-Gbaud PDM 64-QAM using a novel high-power DAC driving a single I/Q modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 532-536 (2012).

R.-J. Essiambre, R. W. Tkach, "Capacity trends and limits of optical communication networks," Proc. IEEE 100, 1035-1055 (2012).

T. Morioka, "Enhancing optical communications with brand new fibers," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, s31-s42 (2012).

P. J. Winzer, "Optical networking beyond WDM," IEEE Photon. J. 4, 647-651 (2012).

J.-X. Cai, "20 Tbit/s transmission over 6860 km with sub-Nyquist channel spacing," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 651-657 (2012).

X. Zhou, "PDM-Nyquist-32QAM for 450-Gb/s per-channel WDM transmission on the 50 GHz ITU-T Grid," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 553-559 (2012).

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, S. Radic, "“Non-coherent high spectral efficiency long haul waveband transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 113-115 (2012).

2011 (6)

P. J. Winzer, "Energy-efficient optical transport capacity scaling through spatial multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 851-853 (2011).

G. Bosco, "On the performance of Nyquist-WDM Terabit superchannels based on PM-BPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 53-61 (2011).

S. Zhang, "A performance investigation of adaptive phase estimations in coherent optical communications," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 23, 462-464 (2011).

F. A. Kish, "Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1470-1488 (2011).

W. Shieh, X. Chen, "Information spectral efficiency and launch power density limits due to fiber nonlinearity for coherent optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photonics J. 3, 158-173 (2011).

B. Zhu, "112-Tb/s space-division multiplexed DWDM transmission with 14-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency over a 76.8-km seven-core fiber," Opt. Exp. 19, 16665-16671 (2011).

2010 (11)

R.-J. Essiambre, "Capacity limits of optical fiber networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662-701 (2010).

G. Bosco, "Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1129-1131 (2010).

F. Chang, "Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, S48-S55 (2010).

M. Magarini, "Concatenated coded modulation for optical communications systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1244-1246 (2010).

H. Batshon, "Ultra high speed optical transmission using subcarrier-multiplexed four-dimensional LDPC coded modulation," Opt. Exp. 18, 20546-20551 (2010).

P. J. Winzer, "Beyond 100G Ethernet," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 26-30 (2010).

R. W. Tkach, "Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond," Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 3-9 (2010).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Fiber impairment compensation using coherent detection and digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 502-519 (2010).

P. J. Winzer, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).

S. Tibuleac, M. Filer, "Transmission impairments in DWDM networks with reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 557-567 (2010).

S. Gringeri, "Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 40-50 (2010).

2009 (4)

M. G. Taylor, "Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 901-914 (2009).

T. Pfau, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

P. Tan, N. C. Beaulieu, "Analysis of the effects of Nyquist pulse-shaping on the performance of OFDM systems with carrier frequency offset," Eur. Trans. Telecommun. 20, 9-22 (2009).

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, "Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5115-5126 (2009).

2008 (5)

P. J. Winzer, "100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: From laboratory experiments to field trials," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3388-3402 (2008).

C. R. S. Fludger, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).

H. Sun, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Exp. 16, 873-879 (2008).

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

W. Shieh, K.-P. Ho, "Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent detection systems using electronic digital signal processing," Opt. Exp. 16, 15718-15727 (2008).

2007 (2)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-1692 (2007).

G. Raybon, "1-Tbit/s (10 × 107 Gbit/s) electronically multiplexed optical signal generation and WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 233-238 (2007).

2006 (4)

P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

D. A. Fishman, "LambdaXtreme transport system: R&D of a high capacity system for low cost, ultra long haul DWDM transport," Bell Labs Tech. J. 11, 27-53 (2006).

D.-S. Lu-Gagnon, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

A. Leven, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).

2005 (3)

R. Noe, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

P. J. Winzer, "Coherent crosstalk in ultradense WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1734-1744 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

2003 (1)

G. Kramer, "Spectral efficiency of coded phase shift keying for fiber-optic communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2438-2445 (2003).

2002 (1)

R.-J. Essiambre, "Design of bidirectionally-pumped fiber amplifiers generating ASE and double Rayleigh backscattering at constant fiber Kerr nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 914-916 (2002).

1999 (1)

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999).

1998 (1)

G. D. Forney, G. Ungerboeck, "Modulation and coding for linear Gaussian channels," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 44, 2384-2415 (1998).

1992 (1)

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).

1975 (1)

J. E. Mazo, "Faster-than-Nyquist signaling," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1451-1462 (1975).

1948 (1)

C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623-656 (1948).

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

R. W. Tkach, "Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond," Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 3-9 (2010).

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

D. A. Fishman, "LambdaXtreme transport system: R&D of a high capacity system for low cost, ultra long haul DWDM transport," Bell Labs Tech. J. 11, 27-53 (2006).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623-656 (1948).

J. E. Mazo, "Faster-than-Nyquist signaling," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1451-1462 (1975).

Electron. Lett. (1)

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