Abstract

This paper reviews recent advances in the generation, detection and transmission of orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) based superchannels, enabled by efficient and powerful digital signal processors. The use of OFDM to form a superchannel can be (1) at the modulation stage by naturally realizing a square-like signal spectral shape to allow close packing of multiple modulated signals, and/or (2) at the optical multiplexing stage by seamlessly multiplexing these modulated signals. This paper reviews recent advances in this field. Several OFDM-based superchannel architectures are described and compared.

© 2012 IEEE

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  3. P. J. Winzer, "Beyond 100 G ethernet," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, (2010).
  4. J. D'Ambrosia, "100 Gagabit ethernet and beyond," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, S6-S13 (2010).
  5. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, B. Zhu, "Generation and 1 200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator," Proc. ECOC 2010 (2010).
  6. G. Raybon, "8 × 320-Gb/s transmission over 5600 km using all-ETDM 80-Gbaud polarization multiplexed QPSK transmitter and coherent receiver," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2012 .
  7. Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, W. Shieh, "1-Tb/s per channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with subwavelength bandwidth access," Proc. OFC'09 .
  8. R. Dischler, F. Buchali, "Transmission of 1.2 Tb/s continuous waveband PDM-OFDM-FDM signal with spectral efficiency of 3.3 bit/s/Hz over 400 km of SSMF," Proc. OFC'09 .
  9. S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber," Proc. ECOC'09 .
  10. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," Proc. OFC'10 .
  11. X. Liu, "Single coherent detection of a 606-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal with 32-QAM subcarrier modulation using 4 × 80-Gsamples/s ADCs," Proc. ECOC2010 PD2.6 .
  12. X. Liu, "728-Gb/s CO-OFDM transmission over 800-km ULAF using 64-QAM subcarrier modulation and single-step coherent detection with 4 × 80-Gsamples/s ADCs," Proc. ACP 2010 PD1 .
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  14. G. Gavioli, E. Torrengo, G. Bosco, A. Carena, S. J. Savory, F. Forghieri, P. Poggiolini, "Ultra-narrow-spacing 10-channel 1.12 Tb/sD-WDM long-haul transmission over uncompensated SMF and NZDSF," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1419-1421 (2010).
  15. J.-X. Cai, "Transmission of 96 100-Gb/s bandwidth-constrained PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10610 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4370 km," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 491-498 (2011).
  16. X. Zhou, "64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and Post-transmission digital signal processing," EEE J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 571-577 (2011).
  17. T. Kobayashi, "45.2 Tb/s C-band WDM transmission over 240 km using 538 Gb/s PDM-64QAM single carrier FDM signal with digital pilot tone," Proc. ECOC 2011 .
  18. A. D. Ellis, F. C. G. Gunning, B. Cuenot, T. C. Healy, E. Pincemin, "Towards 1 TbE using coherent WDM," Proc. OECC/ACOFT 2008 (2008).
  19. A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).
  20. S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, "Experimental investigation on the performance of closely spaced multi-carrier PDM-QPSK with digital coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 17, 12350-12361 (2009).
  21. Y.-K. Huang, "Terabit/s optical superchannel with flexible modulation format for dynamic distance/route transmission," Proc. OFC'2012 .
  22. J. Yu, "Generation, transmission and coherent detection of 11.2 Tb/s (112 × 100 Gb/s) single source optical OFDM superchannel," Proc. OFC'2011 .
  23. T. J. Xia, "10 000-km enhanced long-haul transmission of 1.15-Tb/s superchannel using SSMF only," Proc. OECC 2011 .
  24. X. Liu, X. Wei, Multilevel amplitude and phase encoded signal generation U.S. Patent 7 558 487 (2005).
  25. Y. Tang, W. Shieh, B. Krongold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1250-1252 (2010).
  26. E. Yamada, "Novel no-guard-interval PDM CO-OFDM transmission in 4.1 Tb/s (50 × 88.8-Gb/s) DWDM link over 800 km SMF including 50-GHz spaced ROADM nodes," Proc. OFC'08 (2008).
  27. R. Kudo, "111 Gb/s no-guard-interval OFDM using low sampling rate analogue-to-digital converter," Proc. ECOC'09 (2009).
  28. X. Liu, "Efficient digital coherent detection of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal by simultaneously detecting multiple carriers per sampling," Proc. OFC'10 (2010).
  29. J. S. Chow, J. C. Tu, J. M. Cioffi, "A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).
  30. X. Chen, "Experimental demonstration of improved fiber nonlinearity tolerance for unique-word DFT-spread OFDM systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 26198-26207 (2011).
  31. A. Li, "Transmission of 1.63-Tb/s PDM-16QAM unique-word DFT-spread OFDM signal over 1 010-km SSMF," Proc. OFC'12 .
  32. X. Liu, F. Buchali, "Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM," Opt. Exp. 16, 21944-21957 (2008).
  33. A. Sano, "30 × 100-Gb/s all-optical OFDM transmission over 1300 km SMF with 10 ROADM nodes," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007).
  34. K. Yonenaga, "100 Gbit/s all-optical OFDM transmission using 4 × 25 Gbit/s optical duobinary signals with phase-controlled optical sub-carriers," Proc. OFC'08 (2001).
  35. X. Liu, "3 × 485-Gb/s WDM transmission over 4800 km of ULAF and 12 × 100-GHz WSSs using CO-OFDM and single coherent detection with 80-GS/s ADCs," Proc. OFC'11 .
  36. X. Zhou, "1200 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 5 × 504-Gb/s PDM-32-64 hybrid QAM using electrical and optical spectral shaping," Proc. OFC 2012 .
  37. T. Kobayashi, "Nonlinear tolerant long-haul WDM transmission over 1200 km using 538 Gb/s/ch PDM-64QAM SC-FDM signals with pilot tone," Proc. OFC 2012 .
  38. J. Yu, "30-Tb/s (3 × 12.84-Tb/s) signal transmission over 320 km using PDM 64-QAM modulation," Proc. OFC 2012 .
  39. Y.-K. Huang, "Transmission of spectral efficient super-channels using all-optical OFDM and digital coherent receiver technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3838-3844 (2011).
  40. T. Mizuochi, "Progress in soft-decision FEC," Proc. OFC 2011 .
  41. J. Cho, C. Xie, P. J. Winzer, "Analysis of soft-decision FEC on non-AWGN channels," Opt. Exp. 20, 7915-7928 (2012).

2012 (1)

J. Cho, C. Xie, P. J. Winzer, "Analysis of soft-decision FEC on non-AWGN channels," Opt. Exp. 20, 7915-7928 (2012).

2011 (4)

Y.-K. Huang, "Transmission of spectral efficient super-channels using all-optical OFDM and digital coherent receiver technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3838-3844 (2011).

X. Chen, "Experimental demonstration of improved fiber nonlinearity tolerance for unique-word DFT-spread OFDM systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 26198-26207 (2011).

J.-X. Cai, "Transmission of 96 100-Gb/s bandwidth-constrained PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10610 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4370 km," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 491-498 (2011).

X. Zhou, "64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and Post-transmission digital signal processing," EEE J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 571-577 (2011).

2010 (5)

R. W. Tkach, "Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond," Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 3-10 (2010).

P. J. Winzer, "Beyond 100 G ethernet," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, (2010).

J. D'Ambrosia, "100 Gagabit ethernet and beyond," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, S6-S13 (2010).

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, B. Krongold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1250-1252 (2010).

G. Gavioli, E. Torrengo, G. Bosco, A. Carena, S. J. Savory, F. Forghieri, P. Poggiolini, "Ultra-narrow-spacing 10-channel 1.12 Tb/sD-WDM long-haul transmission over uncompensated SMF and NZDSF," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1419-1421 (2010).

2009 (2)

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, "Experimental investigation on the performance of closely spaced multi-carrier PDM-QPSK with digital coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 17, 12350-12361 (2009).

2008 (2)

W. Shieh, H. Bao, Y. Tang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Theory and design," Opt. Exp. 16, 841-859 (2008).

X. Liu, F. Buchali, "Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM," Opt. Exp. 16, 21944-21957 (2008).

1991 (1)

J. S. Chow, J. C. Tu, J. M. Cioffi, "A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

R. W. Tkach, "Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond," Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 3-10 (2010).

EEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

X. Zhou, "64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and Post-transmission digital signal processing," EEE J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 571-577 (2011).

IEEE Comm. Mag. (2)

P. J. Winzer, "Beyond 100 G ethernet," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, (2010).

J. D'Ambrosia, "100 Gagabit ethernet and beyond," IEEE Comm. Mag. 48, S6-S13 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

J. S. Chow, J. C. Tu, J. M. Cioffi, "A discrete multitone transceiver system for HDSL applications," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 9, 895-908 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, B. Krongold, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1250-1252 (2010).

G. Gavioli, E. Torrengo, G. Bosco, A. Carena, S. J. Savory, F. Forghieri, P. Poggiolini, "Ultra-narrow-spacing 10-channel 1.12 Tb/sD-WDM long-haul transmission over uncompensated SMF and NZDSF," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1419-1421 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

J.-X. Cai, "Transmission of 96 100-Gb/s bandwidth-constrained PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10610 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4370 km," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 491-498 (2011).

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).

Y.-K. Huang, "Transmission of spectral efficient super-channels using all-optical OFDM and digital coherent receiver technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3838-3844 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (5)

J. Cho, C. Xie, P. J. Winzer, "Analysis of soft-decision FEC on non-AWGN channels," Opt. Exp. 20, 7915-7928 (2012).

X. Liu, F. Buchali, "Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM," Opt. Exp. 16, 21944-21957 (2008).

X. Chen, "Experimental demonstration of improved fiber nonlinearity tolerance for unique-word DFT-spread OFDM systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 26198-26207 (2011).

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, "Experimental investigation on the performance of closely spaced multi-carrier PDM-QPSK with digital coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 17, 12350-12361 (2009).

W. Shieh, H. Bao, Y. Tang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Theory and design," Opt. Exp. 16, 841-859 (2008).

Other (26)

A. R. Chraplyvy, "The coming capacity crunch," Proc. ECOC Plenary Talk (2009).

Y.-K. Huang, "Terabit/s optical superchannel with flexible modulation format for dynamic distance/route transmission," Proc. OFC'2012 .

J. Yu, "Generation, transmission and coherent detection of 11.2 Tb/s (112 × 100 Gb/s) single source optical OFDM superchannel," Proc. OFC'2011 .

T. J. Xia, "10 000-km enhanced long-haul transmission of 1.15-Tb/s superchannel using SSMF only," Proc. OECC 2011 .

X. Liu, X. Wei, Multilevel amplitude and phase encoded signal generation U.S. Patent 7 558 487 (2005).

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, B. Zhu, "Generation and 1 200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator," Proc. ECOC 2010 (2010).

G. Raybon, "8 × 320-Gb/s transmission over 5600 km using all-ETDM 80-Gbaud polarization multiplexed QPSK transmitter and coherent receiver," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2012 .

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, W. Shieh, "1-Tb/s per channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with subwavelength bandwidth access," Proc. OFC'09 .

R. Dischler, F. Buchali, "Transmission of 1.2 Tb/s continuous waveband PDM-OFDM-FDM signal with spectral efficiency of 3.3 bit/s/Hz over 400 km of SSMF," Proc. OFC'09 .

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber," Proc. ECOC'09 .

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," Proc. OFC'10 .

X. Liu, "Single coherent detection of a 606-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal with 32-QAM subcarrier modulation using 4 × 80-Gsamples/s ADCs," Proc. ECOC2010 PD2.6 .

X. Liu, "728-Gb/s CO-OFDM transmission over 800-km ULAF using 64-QAM subcarrier modulation and single-step coherent detection with 4 × 80-Gsamples/s ADCs," Proc. ACP 2010 PD1 .

A. Li, "Transmission of 1.63-Tb/s PDM-16QAM unique-word DFT-spread OFDM signal over 1 010-km SSMF," Proc. OFC'12 .

T. Kobayashi, "45.2 Tb/s C-band WDM transmission over 240 km using 538 Gb/s PDM-64QAM single carrier FDM signal with digital pilot tone," Proc. ECOC 2011 .

A. D. Ellis, F. C. G. Gunning, B. Cuenot, T. C. Healy, E. Pincemin, "Towards 1 TbE using coherent WDM," Proc. OECC/ACOFT 2008 (2008).

E. Yamada, "Novel no-guard-interval PDM CO-OFDM transmission in 4.1 Tb/s (50 × 88.8-Gb/s) DWDM link over 800 km SMF including 50-GHz spaced ROADM nodes," Proc. OFC'08 (2008).

R. Kudo, "111 Gb/s no-guard-interval OFDM using low sampling rate analogue-to-digital converter," Proc. ECOC'09 (2009).

X. Liu, "Efficient digital coherent detection of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal by simultaneously detecting multiple carriers per sampling," Proc. OFC'10 (2010).

A. Sano, "30 × 100-Gb/s all-optical OFDM transmission over 1300 km SMF with 10 ROADM nodes," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007).

K. Yonenaga, "100 Gbit/s all-optical OFDM transmission using 4 × 25 Gbit/s optical duobinary signals with phase-controlled optical sub-carriers," Proc. OFC'08 (2001).

X. Liu, "3 × 485-Gb/s WDM transmission over 4800 km of ULAF and 12 × 100-GHz WSSs using CO-OFDM and single coherent detection with 80-GS/s ADCs," Proc. OFC'11 .

X. Zhou, "1200 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 5 × 504-Gb/s PDM-32-64 hybrid QAM using electrical and optical spectral shaping," Proc. OFC 2012 .

T. Kobayashi, "Nonlinear tolerant long-haul WDM transmission over 1200 km using 538 Gb/s/ch PDM-64QAM SC-FDM signals with pilot tone," Proc. OFC 2012 .

J. Yu, "30-Tb/s (3 × 12.84-Tb/s) signal transmission over 320 km using PDM 64-QAM modulation," Proc. OFC 2012 .

T. Mizuochi, "Progress in soft-decision FEC," Proc. OFC 2011 .

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