Abstract

We propose nonlinear tolerant single carrier frequency-division-multiplexing (SC-FDM) signal enhanced by digital pilot-tone for future high speed Ethernet transport like 400 G Ethernet. First, we discuss system configuration and the wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) transmission of SC-FDM signals employing polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) 64-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (64-QAM). Next, we describe the long-haul transmission characteristics of 50 GHz-spaced 538 Gb/s × 7 ch WDM signals. We compare digital back-propagation (DBP) and digital pilot-tone for nonlinearity compensation and experimentally show that digital pilot-tone can effectively compensate the phase noise induced by inter-channel nonlinear effects with less computational complexity than DBP. Then we discuss a high-capacity transmission experiment employing 548 Gb/s PDM-64QAM SC-FDM; 102.3 Tb/s (224 × 548 Gb/s) C- and extended L-band WDM transmission is demonstrated over 240 km (3 × 80 km) of pure-silica-core fiber (PSCF) with all-Raman amplification. Thanks to the high nonlinear tolerance enhanced by pilot-tone, we can employ the 80 km repeater spacing used in conventional terrestrial systems. Assuming 20% forward error correction (FEC) overhead, a spectral efficiency of 9.1 b/s/Hz is achieved.

© 2012 IEEE

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  5. S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber," Proc. ECOC (2009).
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  7. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).
  8. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer1, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," Proc. OFC (2010).
  9. K. Ishihara, T. Kobayashi, R. Kudo, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "Frequency-domain equalization for coherent optical single-carrier transmission systems," IEICE Trans. Commun. E92 B, 3736-3743 (2009).
  10. T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, E. Yamada, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Over 100 Gb/s electro-optically multiplexed OFDM for high-capacity optical transport network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3714-3720 (2009).
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  14. Y. Tang, W. Shieh, B. S. Krongold, "DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1250-1252 (2010).
  15. A. Li, X. Chen, G. Gao, A. Al Amin, W. Shieh, B. S. Krongold, "Transmission of 1.63-Tb/s PDM-16QAM unique-word DFT-spread-OFDM signal over 1 010-km SSMF," Proc. OFC (2012).
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  19. E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416-3425 (2008).
  20. L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Dou, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Implementation efficient nonlinear equalizer based on correlated digital backpropagation," Proc. OFC (2011).
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  22. E. Yamazaki, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, W. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Mitigation of nonlinearities in optical transmission systems," Proc. OFC (2011).
  23. R. Weidenfeld, M. Nazarathy, R. Noe, I. Shpantzer, "Volterra nonlinear compensation of 112 Gb/s ultra-long-haul coherent optical OFDM based on frequency-shaped decision feedback," Proc. ECOC (2009).
  24. F. P. Guiomar, J. D. Reis, A. Teixeira, A. N. Pinto, "Mitigation of intra-channel nonlinearities using a frequency-domain volterra series equalizer," Proc. ECOC (2011).
  25. E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, Y. Aono, Y. Yano, T. Tajima, T. Wang, "Inter channel nonlinearity compensation for $3 \lambda \times 114$-Gb/s DP-8QAM using three synchronized sampling scopes," Proc. OFC (2012).
  26. B. Inan, S. Randel, S. L. Jansen, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, N. Hanik, "Pilot-tone-based nonlinearity compensation for optical OFDM systems," Proc. ECOC (2010).
  27. L. Du, A. Lowery, "Experimental demonstration of pilot-based XPM nonlinearity compensator for CO-OFDM systems," Proc. ECOC (2011).
  28. A. Diaz, A. Napoli, S. Adhikari, Z. Maalej, A. Lobato, M. Kuschnerov, J. Prat, "Analysis of back-propagation and RF pilot-tone based nonlinearity compensation for a 9$\, \times \,$224 Gb/s POLMUX-16QAM system," Proc. OFC (2012).
  29. R. Kudo, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "Coherent optical single carrier transmission using overlap frequency domain equalization for long-haul optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3721-3728 (2009).
  30. T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, A. Matsuura, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Nakagawa, Y. Sakamaki, T. Mizuno, "120-Gb/s PDM 64-QAM transmission over 1 280 km using multi-staged nonlinear compensation in digital coherent receiver," Proc. OFC (2011).
  31. T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, A. Matsuura, Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, "Nonlinear tolerant long-haul WDM transmission over 1200 km using 538 Gb/s/ch PDM-64QAM SC-FDM signals with pilot tone," Proc. OFC2012 (2012).
  32. A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, S. Yamanaka, A. Matsuura, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, "102.3-Tb/s (224$\, \times \,$548-Gb/s) C- and extended L-band all-Raman transmission over 240 km using PDM-64QAM single carrier FDM with digital pilot tone," Proc. OFC (2012).
  33. K.-C. Hung, D. W. Lin, "Joint carrier recovery and multimodulus blind decision-feedback equalization under high-order QAM," Proc. GLOBECOM (2004) pp. 2281-2285.
  34. J. Yang, J.-J. Werner, G. A. Dumont, "The multimodulous blind equalization and its generalized algorithms," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 997-1015 (2002).
  35. S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).
  36. K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, E. Yamazaki, F. Inuzuka, Y. Miyamoto, A. Takada, T. Yamada, "100 Gbit/s all-optical OFDM transmission using 4$\, \times \,$25 Gbit/s optical duobinary signals with phase-controlled optical sub-carriers," Proc. OFC (2008).
  37. H. Masuda, Y. Miyamoto, "Low-noise extended L-band phosphorus co-doped silicate EDFA consisting of novel two-stage gain-flattened gain blocks," Electron. Lett. 44, 1082 (2008).

2010 (2)

W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Ultrahigh-speed signal transmission over nonlinear and dispersive fiber optic channel: The multicarrier advantage," IEEE Photon. J. 2, 276-283 (2010).

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, B. S. Krongold, "DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1250-1252 (2010).

2009 (4)

E. Yamazaki, H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, M. Mtsui, Y. Takatori, "Multi-staged nonlinear compensation in coherent receiver for 12 015 km WDM transmission of 10-ch$\, \times \,$111 Gbit/s noguard-interval co-OFDM," Electron. Lett. 45, 695-697 (2009).

R. Kudo, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "Coherent optical single carrier transmission using overlap frequency domain equalization for long-haul optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3721-3728 (2009).

K. Ishihara, T. Kobayashi, R. Kudo, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "Frequency-domain equalization for coherent optical single-carrier transmission systems," IEICE Trans. Commun. E92 B, 3736-3743 (2009).

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, E. Yamada, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Over 100 Gb/s electro-optically multiplexed OFDM for high-capacity optical transport network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3714-3720 (2009).

2008 (4)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416-3425 (2008).

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

H. Masuda, Y. Miyamoto, "Low-noise extended L-band phosphorus co-doped silicate EDFA consisting of novel two-stage gain-flattened gain blocks," Electron. Lett. 44, 1082 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

2006 (1)

H. G. Myung, J. Lim, D. J. Goodman, "Single carrier FDMA for uplink wireless transmission," IEEE Vehic. Tech. Mag. 1, 30-38 (2006).

2002 (1)

J. Yang, J.-J. Werner, G. A. Dumont, "The multimodulous blind equalization and its generalized algorithms," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 997-1015 (2002).

Electron. Lett. (2)

E. Yamazaki, H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, M. Mtsui, Y. Takatori, "Multi-staged nonlinear compensation in coherent receiver for 12 015 km WDM transmission of 10-ch$\, \times \,$111 Gbit/s noguard-interval co-OFDM," Electron. Lett. 45, 695-697 (2009).

H. Masuda, Y. Miyamoto, "Low-noise extended L-band phosphorus co-doped silicate EDFA consisting of novel two-stage gain-flattened gain blocks," Electron. Lett. 44, 1082 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

J. Yang, J.-J. Werner, G. A. Dumont, "The multimodulous blind equalization and its generalized algorithms," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 997-1015 (2002).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Ultrahigh-speed signal transmission over nonlinear and dispersive fiber optic channel: The multicarrier advantage," IEEE Photon. J. 2, 276-283 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, B. S. Krongold, "DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1250-1252 (2010).

IEEE Vehic. Tech. Mag. (1)

H. G. Myung, J. Lim, D. J. Goodman, "Single carrier FDMA for uplink wireless transmission," IEEE Vehic. Tech. Mag. 1, 30-38 (2006).

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

K. Ishihara, T. Kobayashi, R. Kudo, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "Frequency-domain equalization for coherent optical single-carrier transmission systems," IEICE Trans. Commun. E92 B, 3736-3743 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, E. Yamada, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Over 100 Gb/s electro-optically multiplexed OFDM for high-capacity optical transport network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3714-3720 (2009).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416-3425 (2008).

R. Kudo, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, "Coherent optical single carrier transmission using overlap frequency domain equalization for long-haul optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3721-3728 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

Other (25)

K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, E. Yamazaki, F. Inuzuka, Y. Miyamoto, A. Takada, T. Yamada, "100 Gbit/s all-optical OFDM transmission using 4$\, \times \,$25 Gbit/s optical duobinary signals with phase-controlled optical sub-carriers," Proc. OFC (2008).

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, A. Matsuura, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Nakagawa, Y. Sakamaki, T. Mizuno, "120-Gb/s PDM 64-QAM transmission over 1 280 km using multi-staged nonlinear compensation in digital coherent receiver," Proc. OFC (2011).

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, A. Matsuura, Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, "Nonlinear tolerant long-haul WDM transmission over 1200 km using 538 Gb/s/ch PDM-64QAM SC-FDM signals with pilot tone," Proc. OFC2012 (2012).

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, S. Yamanaka, A. Matsuura, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, "102.3-Tb/s (224$\, \times \,$548-Gb/s) C- and extended L-band all-Raman transmission over 240 km using PDM-64QAM single carrier FDM with digital pilot tone," Proc. OFC (2012).

K.-C. Hung, D. W. Lin, "Joint carrier recovery and multimodulus blind decision-feedback equalization under high-order QAM," Proc. GLOBECOM (2004) pp. 2281-2285.

E. Yamazaki, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, W. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Mitigation of nonlinearities in optical transmission systems," Proc. OFC (2011).

R. Weidenfeld, M. Nazarathy, R. Noe, I. Shpantzer, "Volterra nonlinear compensation of 112 Gb/s ultra-long-haul coherent optical OFDM based on frequency-shaped decision feedback," Proc. ECOC (2009).

F. P. Guiomar, J. D. Reis, A. Teixeira, A. N. Pinto, "Mitigation of intra-channel nonlinearities using a frequency-domain volterra series equalizer," Proc. ECOC (2011).

E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, Y. Aono, Y. Yano, T. Tajima, T. Wang, "Inter channel nonlinearity compensation for $3 \lambda \times 114$-Gb/s DP-8QAM using three synchronized sampling scopes," Proc. OFC (2012).

B. Inan, S. Randel, S. L. Jansen, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, N. Hanik, "Pilot-tone-based nonlinearity compensation for optical OFDM systems," Proc. ECOC (2010).

L. Du, A. Lowery, "Experimental demonstration of pilot-based XPM nonlinearity compensator for CO-OFDM systems," Proc. ECOC (2011).

A. Diaz, A. Napoli, S. Adhikari, Z. Maalej, A. Lobato, M. Kuschnerov, J. Prat, "Analysis of back-propagation and RF pilot-tone based nonlinearity compensation for a 9$\, \times \,$224 Gb/s POLMUX-16QAM system," Proc. OFC (2012).

L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Dou, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Implementation efficient nonlinear equalizer based on correlated digital backpropagation," Proc. OFC (2011).

S. L. Jansen, "Multi-carrier approaches for next-generation transmission: Why, where and how?," Proc. OFC (2012).

A. Li, X. Chen, G. Gao, A. Al Amin, W. Shieh, B. S. Krongold, "Transmission of 1.63-Tb/s PDM-16QAM unique-word DFT-spread-OFDM signal over 1 010-km SSMF," Proc. OFC (2012).

100 G CI-BCH-4TM eFEC Technology www.vitesse.com.

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, T. Mizuochi, "A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100 Gb/s optical transmission," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2010).

K. Kikuchi, M. Fukase, S.-Y. Kim, "Electronic post-compensation for nonlinear phase in a 1000-km 20-Gbit/s optical QPSK transmission system using the homodyne receiver with digital signal processing," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer1, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," Proc. OFC (2010).

Y. Miyamoto, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, "The challenge for the next generation OTN based on 400 Gbps and beyond," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2012).

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, M. Yoshida, T. Sakano, H. Kubota, Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, M. Mizoguchi, M. Nagatani, "45.2 Tb/s C-band WDM transmission over 240 km using 538 Gb/s PDM-64QAM single carrier FDM signal with digital pilot tone," Proc. ECOC (2011).

H. Takahashi, K. Takeshima, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "400-Gbit/s optical OFDM transmission over 80 km in 50-GHz frequency grid," Proc. ECOC (2010).

X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, K. Carlson, "4000 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 10 494.85-Gb/s hybrid 32–64QAM using cascaded equalization and training-assisted phase recovery," Proc. OFC (2012).

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber," Proc. ECOC (2009).

W. Shieh, I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications (Academic, 2009).

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