Abstract

With high-bandwidth and on-demand applications continuing to emerge, next-generation core optical networks will likely require significant improvements in reconfigurability and ultra-fast operations. Optical signal processing overcomes the electronic bandwidth limitations with the advantages in terms of transparency and scalability. We review recent progresses in all-optical signal processing potentially for ultrahigh speed systems and networks. Starting from a brief overview of optical signal processing in high-speed optical systems and networks, we highlight a few key network functionalities, including optical logic operations, reconfigurable add/drop multiplexing, optical regeneration, wavelength conversion, format conversion, and phase-sensitive amplification. Different techniques are investigated and discussed, employing a wide range of devices and various nonlinearities. Some of experimental results are presented in both single polarization systems and polarization-division multiplexing systems.

© 2012 IEEE

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2012 (7)

A. Bogoni, "Photonic 640 Gb/s reconfigurable OTDM add-drop multiplexer based on pump depletion in a single PPLN waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 709-716 (2012).

L. K. Oxenløwe, "Silicon photonics for signal processing of Tbit/s serial data signals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 996-1005 (2012).

A. Bogoni, "640 Gb/s all-optical regenerator based on a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1829-1834 (2012).

A. L. Yi, "Simultaneous all-optical RZ-to-NRZ format conversion for two tributaries in PDM signal using a single section of highly nonlinear fiber," Opt. Exp. 20, 162729-162736 (2012).

R. Slavık, "Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 859-869 (2012).

Z. Y. Chen, "Phase sensitive amplifier for PSK signals based on non-degenerate four-wave-mixing in the optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 285, 2445-2450 (2012).

Z. Tong, "Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1016-1032 (2012).

2011 (7)

S. Sygletos, "A practical phase sensitive amplification scheme for two channel phase regeneration," Opt. Exp. 19, B938-B945 (2011).

A. L. Yi, "All-optical regeneration of polarization division multiplexing signals in polarization nonlinear loop mirror," Opt. Commun. 248, 3619-3621 (2011).

A. L. Yi, "All-optical signal regeneration in polarization division multiplexing systems," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 703-712 (2011).

A. L. Yi, "Wavelength conversion of RZ-OOK PDM signals based on XPM in highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 341-343 (2011).

L.-S. Yan, X. Liu, W. Shieh, "Towards Shannon limits of spectral efficiency," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 325-330 (2011).

K. Dolgaleva, "Compact highly-nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides for efficient wavelength conversion," Opt. Exp. 19, 12440-12455 (2011).

A. E. Willner, "Optically efficient nonlinear signal processing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 320-332 (2011).

2010 (9)

X. Wu, "High-speed optical WDM-to-TDM conversion using fiber nonlinearities," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1441-1447 (2010).

X. Wu, "Eightfold 40–320 Gbit/s phase-coherent multiplexing and 320–40 Gbit/s demultiplexing using highly nonlinear fibers," Opt. Lett. 35, 1896-1898 (2010).

H. Hu, "640 Gbit/s and 1.28 Tbit/s polarisation insensitive all optical wavelength conversion," Opt. Exp. 18, 9961-9966 (2010).

A. Bogoni, "640 Gb/s photonic logic gates," Opt. Lett. 35, 3955-3957 (2010).

J. E. Bowers, "Hybrid silicon lasers: The final frontier to integrated computing," Opt. Photon. News 21, 28-33 (2010).

A. Rostami, "Tb/s optical logic gates based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46, 354-361 (2010).

A. L. Yi, "Self-phase-modulation based all-optical regeneration of PDM signals using a single section of highly-nonlinear fiber," Opt. Exp. 18, 7150-7155 (2010).

R. J. Essiambre, "Capacity limits of optical fiber networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662-701 (2010).

R. Slavık, "All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems," Nat. Photon. 4, 690-695 (2010).

2009 (9)

M. Hirano, "Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers and their application," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 103-113 (2009).

A. Bogoni, "160 Gb/s time domain channel extraction/insertion and all optical logic operations exploiting a single PPLN waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4221-4227 (2009).

I. Kang, "All-optical XOR and XNOR operations at 86.4 Gb/s using a pair of semiconductor optical amplifier Mach–Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Exp. 19062-19066 (2009).

C. Koos, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 216-219 (2009).

T. Hirooka, "All-optical demultiplexing of 640-Gb/s OTDM-DPSK signal using a semiconductor SMZ switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1574-1576 (2009).

X. Wu, "Controllable optical demultiplexing using continuously tunable optical parametric delay at 160-Gbit/s with ${<}0.1$ ps resolution," Opt. Lett. 34, 3926-3928 (2009).

H. C. H. Mulvad, "1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing," Electron. Lett. 45, 280-281 (2009).

M. G. Taylor, "Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 901-914 (2009).

I. Fatadin, "Blind equalization and carrier phase recovery in a 16-QAM optical coherent system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3042-3049 (2009).

2008 (11)

K. Igarashi, "Optical signal processing by phase modulation and subsequent spectral filtering aiming at applications to ultrafast optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 551-565 (2008).

E. Ip, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).

M. Galili, "Optical wavelength conversion by cross-phase modulation of data signals up to 640 Gb/s," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 573-579 (2008).

M.-F. Huang, "Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion for 4 × 112 Gbit/s polarization multiplexing RZ-QPSK signals," Opt. Exp. 16, 21161-21169 (2008).

M. P. Fok, "Recent advances in optical processing techniques using highly nonlinear bismuth oxide fiber," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 587-598 (2008).

M. D. Pelusi, "Applications of highly-nonlinear Chalcogenide glass devices tailored for high-speed all-optical signal processing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 529-539 (2008).

R. Tang, "In-line phase-sensitive amplification of multichannel CW signals based on frequency nondegenerate four-wave-mixing in fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 9046-9053 (2008).

L. Provost, "Analysis of a two-channel 2R all-optical regenerator based on a counter-propagating configuration," Opt. Exp. 16, 2264-2275 (2008).

L. K. Oxenløwe, "640 Gbit/s clock recovery using periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 44, 1135-1137 (2008).

R. Salem, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photon. 2, 35-38 (2008).

M. Scaffardi, "Photonic processing for digital comparison and full addition based on semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 1-8 (2008).

2007 (7)

M. Scaffardi, "Photonic combinatorial network for contention management in 160 Gb/s interconnection networks based on all-optical 2 × 2 switching elements," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1531-1539 (2007).

H. Furukawa, "Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion of 160-Gb/s RZ optical signals by cascaded SFG-DFG generation in PPLN waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 384-386 (2007).

J. Wang, "All-optical format conversion using a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051107-051107-3 (2007).

Y. Wang, "44-ns continuously tunable dispersionless optical delay element using a PPLN waveguide with two-pump configuration, DCF, and a dispersion compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861-863 (2007).

S. Zhang, "Multistate optical flip-flop memory based on ring lasers coupled through the same gain medium," Opt. Commun. 270, 85-95 (2007).

Y. Liu, "Error-free 320-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion using a single semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 103-108 (2007).

E. Tangdiongga, "All-optical demultiplexing of 640 to 40 Gbits/s using filtered chirp of a semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 32, 835-837 (2007).

2006 (8)

P. J. Winzer, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

S. L. Jansen, "Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 505-520 (2006).

C. Langrock, "All-optical signal processing using $\chi ^{(2)}$ nonlinearities in guided-wave devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2579-2592 (2006).

J. H. Lee, "Bismuth-oxide-based nonlinear fiber with a high SBS threshold and its application to four-wave-mixing wavelength conversion using a pure continuous-wave pump," J. Lightw.Technol. 24, 22-28 (2006).

J. Y. Kim, "All-optical multiple logic gates with XOR, NOR, OR, and NAND functions using parallel SOA-MZI structures: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3392-3399 (2006).

K. Croussore, "Phase-and-amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using a phase-sensitive amplifier," Opt. Exp. 14, 2086-2094 (2006).

C. H. Kwok, C. L. Lin, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by spectral filtering of a cross phase modulation broadened signal spectrum," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 451-458 (2006).

V. G. Ta'eed, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in Chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).

2005 (5)

R. Tang, "Gain characteristics of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive fiber-optic parametric amplifier with phase self-stabilized input," Opt. Exp. 13, 10483-10493 (2005).

A. Bogoni, "Regenerative and reconfigurable all-optical logic gates for ultra-fast applications," Electron. Lett. 41, 435-436 (2005).

K. K. Chow, "Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 624-626 (2005).

J. Li, "OTDM add-drop multiplexer based on XPM-induced wavelength shifting in highly nonlinear fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2654-2661 (2005).

E. J. M. Verdurmen, "Error-free all-optical add-drop multiplexing using HNLF in a NOLM at 160 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 41, 349-350 (2005).

2004 (2)

H.-F. Chou, "Compact 160-Gb/s add-drop multiplexer with a 40-Gb/s base rate using electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1564-1566 (2004).

K. Croussore, "All-optical regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals based on phase-sensitive amplification," Opt. Lett. 29, 2357-2359 (2004).

2003 (2)

T. A. Ibrahim, "All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422-1424 (2003).

J. H. Lee, "A tunable WDM wavelength converter based on cross-phase modulation effects in normal dispersion holey fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 437-439 (2003).

2001 (1)

Y. Ueno, "Penalty-free error-free all-optical data pulse regeneration at 84 Gb/s by using a symmetric-Mach-Zehnder-type semiconductor regenerator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 469-471 (2001).

1999 (1)

M. H. Chou, "1.5-$\mu$m-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinear in LiNbO$_3$ waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653-655 (1999).

1994 (1)

M. O. Deventer, A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Wang, "All-optical format conversion using a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051107-051107-3 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Bogoni, "Regenerative and reconfigurable all-optical logic gates for ultra-fast applications," Electron. Lett. 41, 435-436 (2005).

L. K. Oxenløwe, "640 Gbit/s clock recovery using periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 44, 1135-1137 (2008).

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. C. H. Mulvad, "1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing," Electron. Lett. 45, 280-281 (2009).

E. J. M. Verdurmen, "Error-free all-optical add-drop multiplexing using HNLF in a NOLM at 160 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 41, 349-350 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

A. Rostami, "Tb/s optical logic gates based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46, 354-361 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Hirano, "Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers and their application," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 103-113 (2009).

X. Wu, "High-speed optical WDM-to-TDM conversion using fiber nonlinearities," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1441-1447 (2010).

K. Igarashi, "Optical signal processing by phase modulation and subsequent spectral filtering aiming at applications to ultrafast optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 551-565 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Wang, "44-ns continuously tunable dispersionless optical delay element using a PPLN waveguide with two-pump configuration, DCF, and a dispersion compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 861-863 (2007).

M. H. Chou, "1.5-$\mu$m-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinear in LiNbO$_3$ waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653-655 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Scaffardi, "Photonic combinatorial network for contention management in 160 Gb/s interconnection networks based on all-optical 2 × 2 switching elements," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1531-1539 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. G. Ta'eed, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in Chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

C. H. Kwok, C. L. Lin, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by spectral filtering of a cross phase modulation broadened signal spectrum," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 451-458 (2006).

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IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

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