Abstract

In this paper, the performance of an on-chip hollow-core-waveguide (HW) using high-contrast gratings (HCG) for analog signal transmission is analyzed numerically. Simulation results indicate that after propagating 100 m in a HCG-HW with optimally designed parameters, there is very little degradation of either third-order intermodulation distortion spur-free dynamic range (IM3 SFDR) or third-order harmonic distortion (THD) SFDR. Due to the chromatic dispersion of the HCG-HW, the highest second-order harmonic distortion (SHD) SFDR is limited to 107.3 dB ·Hz<sup>1/2</sup>. In addition, > 100 dB ·Hz <sup>2/3</sup> IM3 SFDR can be achieved over a radio frequency (RF) range of 80 GHz and an optical wavelength bandwidth of 50 nm after propagation 100 m through a HCG-HW. The parameter dependence of the waveguide performance is also investigated. With a ±20 nm variation on all parameters, the propagation length in an HCG-HW is limited to ~6 m in order to maintain an IM3 SFDR of >100 dB ·Hz<sup>2/3</sup>.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. C. H. Cox, IIIAnalog Optical Links: Theory and Practice (Cambridge University Press, 2004) pp. 201-205.
  2. W. S. C. Chang, RF Photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links (Cambridge University Press, 2002) pp. 25-32.
  3. P. Roberts, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Optics Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
  4. Y. Zhou, V. Karagodsky, B. Pesala, F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A novel ultra-low loss hollow-core waveguide using subwavelength high-contrast gratings," Optics Express 17, 1508-1517 (2009).
  5. V. Karagodsky, F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Theoretical analysis of subwavelength high contrast grating reflectors," Optics Express 18, 16973-16988 (2010).
  6. Y. Yue, L. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Xiao-Li, B. Shamee, V. Karagodsky, F. G. Sedgwick, W. Hofmann, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, A. E. Willner, "A ‘linear’ high-contrast gratings hollow-core waveguide and its system level performance," The Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San DiegoCA (2010) presented at, paper OTuI5.
  7. Y. Yue, L. Zhang, F. G. Sedgwick, B. Shamee, W. Yang, J. Ferrara, C. Chase, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, A. E. Willner, "Chromatic dispersion variation and its effect on high-speed data signals due to structural parameter changes in a high-contrast-grating waveguide," The IEEE Photonics Society Annual Meeting DenverCO (2010) presented at, paper ThB2.
  8. H. Huang, Y. Yue, L. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Chase, D. Parekh, F. Sedgwick, M. Tur, M. C. Wu, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, A. Willner, "Analog signal performance of a hollow-core-waveguide using high-contrast- gratings," The Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2011) presented at, paper OThA3.
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  10. B. Pesala, V. Karagodsky, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultra-compact low loss photonic components using high-contrast gratings," ICOP 2009-International Conference on Optics and Photonics CSIO ChandigarhIndia (2009) presented.
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  17. R. Pafchek, R. Tummidi, J. Li, M. A. Webster, E. Chen, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator shallow-ridge TE and TM waveguides formed using thermal oxidation," Applied Optics 48, 958-963 (2009).
  18. M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon- on-insulator," Applied Physics Letters 87, (2005).

2010 (1)

V. Karagodsky, F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Theoretical analysis of subwavelength high contrast grating reflectors," Optics Express 18, 16973-16988 (2010).

2009 (2)

Y. Zhou, V. Karagodsky, B. Pesala, F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A novel ultra-low loss hollow-core waveguide using subwavelength high-contrast gratings," Optics Express 17, 1508-1517 (2009).

R. Pafchek, R. Tummidi, J. Li, M. A. Webster, E. Chen, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator shallow-ridge TE and TM waveguides formed using thermal oxidation," Applied Optics 48, 958-963 (2009).

2006 (2)

C. H. Cox, IIIE. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. L. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 54, 906-920 (2006).

G. Katz, S. Arnon, P. Goldgeier, Y. Hauptman, N. Atias, "Cellular over optical wireless networks," IEE Proceedings—Optoelectronics 153, 195-198 (2006).

2005 (2)

P. Roberts, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Optics Express 13, 236-244 (2005).

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon- on-insulator," Applied Physics Letters 87, (2005).

1995 (1)

W. B. Bridges, J. H. Schaffner, "Distortion in linearized electrooptic modulators," IEEE Transations on Microwave Theory and Techniques 43, 2184-2197 (1995).

1993 (1)

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, C. H. Bulmer, "Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 41, 2383-2391 (1993).

1990 (1)

C. S. Oh, W. Gu, "Fiber induced distortions in a subcarrier multiplexed lightwave system," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 8, 1296-1303 (1990).

1984 (1)

G. J. Meslener, "Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 20, 1208-1216 (1984).

Applied Physics Letters (1)

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon- on-insulator," Applied Physics Letters 87, (2005).

Applied Optics (1)

R. Pafchek, R. Tummidi, J. Li, M. A. Webster, E. Chen, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator shallow-ridge TE and TM waveguides formed using thermal oxidation," Applied Optics 48, 958-963 (2009).

IEE Proceedings—Optoelectronics (1)

G. Katz, S. Arnon, P. Goldgeier, Y. Hauptman, N. Atias, "Cellular over optical wireless networks," IEE Proceedings—Optoelectronics 153, 195-198 (2006).

IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques (1)

C. H. Cox, IIIE. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. L. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 54, 906-920 (2006).

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (1)

C. S. Oh, W. Gu, "Fiber induced distortions in a subcarrier multiplexed lightwave system," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 8, 1296-1303 (1990).

IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (1)

G. J. Meslener, "Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 20, 1208-1216 (1984).

IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques (1)

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, C. H. Bulmer, "Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 41, 2383-2391 (1993).

IEEE Transations on Microwave Theory and Techniques (1)

W. B. Bridges, J. H. Schaffner, "Distortion in linearized electrooptic modulators," IEEE Transations on Microwave Theory and Techniques 43, 2184-2197 (1995).

Optics Express (1)

Y. Zhou, V. Karagodsky, B. Pesala, F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A novel ultra-low loss hollow-core waveguide using subwavelength high-contrast gratings," Optics Express 17, 1508-1517 (2009).

Optics Express (2)

V. Karagodsky, F. G. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Theoretical analysis of subwavelength high contrast grating reflectors," Optics Express 18, 16973-16988 (2010).

P. Roberts, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Optics Express 13, 236-244 (2005).

Other (7)

J. A. MacDonald, M. V. Kubak, A. Katz, "Wideband dynamic range improvement of microwave photonic links," IEEE Conference, Avionics Fiber-Optics and Photonics MinneapolisMN (2005) presented, paper ThB3, pp. 67–68.

Y. Yue, L. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Xiao-Li, B. Shamee, V. Karagodsky, F. G. Sedgwick, W. Hofmann, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, A. E. Willner, "A ‘linear’ high-contrast gratings hollow-core waveguide and its system level performance," The Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San DiegoCA (2010) presented at, paper OTuI5.

Y. Yue, L. Zhang, F. G. Sedgwick, B. Shamee, W. Yang, J. Ferrara, C. Chase, R. G. Beausoleil, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, A. E. Willner, "Chromatic dispersion variation and its effect on high-speed data signals due to structural parameter changes in a high-contrast-grating waveguide," The IEEE Photonics Society Annual Meeting DenverCO (2010) presented at, paper ThB2.

H. Huang, Y. Yue, L. Zhang, X. Wang, C. Chase, D. Parekh, F. Sedgwick, M. Tur, M. C. Wu, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, A. Willner, "Analog signal performance of a hollow-core-waveguide using high-contrast- gratings," The Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2011) presented at, paper OThA3.

B. Pesala, V. Karagodsky, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultra-compact low loss photonic components using high-contrast gratings," ICOP 2009-International Conference on Optics and Photonics CSIO ChandigarhIndia (2009) presented.

C. H. Cox, IIIAnalog Optical Links: Theory and Practice (Cambridge University Press, 2004) pp. 201-205.

W. S. C. Chang, RF Photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links (Cambridge University Press, 2002) pp. 25-32.

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