Abstract

High-frequency electro-optical modulator is critical for enabling signal processing and distribution in the next generation cloud-computing, tele-medicine, and telecommunications. In this paper, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) is exploited as an alternative fundamental transmission line structure in support of electrical signal for the design and development of millimeter-wave and terahertz (THz) traveling-wave polymeric electro-optic (EO) modulator. Optical and full-wave electromagnetic analyses are carried out and structure optimization is made on the basis of such analyses in order to obtain millimeter-wave transmission characteristics and optical response. Compared to its conventional TEM-mode transmission lines, this bandpass non-TEM mode SIW-based EO modulator presents numerous advantages, namely compact structure, low transmission loss, low driving power, simple packaging and flat optical response over a wide frequency range.

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2010 (1)

J. Federici, L. Moeller, "Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101–1-111101–22 (2010).

2009 (3)

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, D. H. Bale, "Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: State of the art and future prospects," J. Chem. Rev. 110, 25-55 (2009).

R. Mendis, D. M. Mittleman, "Comparison of the lowest-order transverse-electric (TE1) and transverse-magnetic (TEM) modes of the parallel-plate waveguide for terahertz pulse applications," Opt. Exp. 17, 14839-50 (2009).

R. Mendis, D. M. Mittleman, "An investrigation of the lowest-order transverse-electric (TE1) mode of the parallel-plate waveguide for THz pulse propagation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 26, A6-A13 (2009).

2008 (2)

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, A. Scherer, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).

K. Igarashi, K. Kikuchi, "Optical signal processing by phase modulation and subsequent spectral filtering aiming at applications to ultrafast optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 551-565 (2008).

2007 (2)

K. Wu, E. Mortazy, M. Bozzi, "Development of microwave and millimeter-wave traveling-wave electro-optical devices using substrate integrated circuit concept," Proc. Microw. Photon. 62-65 (2007).

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, "Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).

2006 (3)

S. E. Thompson, S. Parthasarathy, "Moore's law: The future of Si microelectronics," J. Nanotechnology 9, 20-25 (2006).

C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. L. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 906-919 (2006).

B. M. A. Rahman, V. Haxha, S. Haxha, K. T. V. Grattan, "Design optimization of polymer electro-optic modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3506-3513 (2006).

2005 (1)

D. Stephens, P. R. Young, S. Member, I. D. Robertson, S. Member, "Millimeter-wave substrate integrated waveguides and filters in photoimageable thick-film technology," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 3832-3838 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. Wang, D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature 432, 376-9 (2004).

2003 (2)

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Exp. 11, 2549 (2003).

T. Tokle, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "Advanced modulation formats in 40 Gbit/s optical communication systems with 80 km fibre spans," Opt. Commun. 225, 79-87 (2003).

2002 (3)

D. M. Gill, A. Chowdhury, "Electro-optic polymer-based modulator design and performance for 40 Gb/s system applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2145-2153 (2002).

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, J. Kim, "Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634 (2002).

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee, "Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," J. Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).

2001 (3)

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3136 (2001).

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).

A. Chowdhury, L. McCaughan, "Figure of merit for near-velocity-matched traveling-wave modulators," Opt. Lett. 26, 1317-9 (2001).

2000 (3)

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. Mcgowan, D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B: Opt. Phys. 17, 851-863 (2000).

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).

S. Tang, L. Sun, R. T. Chen, "Highly efficient linear waveguide modulator based on domain-inverted electro-optic polymers," Opt. Eng. 39, 680-688 (2000).

1999 (3)

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, J. Bechtel, "Push-pull poled polymer Mach-Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51-53 (1999).

M. Konno, "Conductor loss in thin-film transmission lines," Electron. Commun. Japan 82, 83-91 (1999) pt. 2.

R. W. McGowan, G. Gallot, D. Grischkowsky, "Propagation of ultrawideband short pulses of terahertz radiation through submillimeter-diameter circular waveguides," Opt. Lett. 24, 1431 (1999).

1998 (1)

G. E. Ponchak, S. Member, A. N. Downey, "Characterization of thin film microstrip lines on polyimide," IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manufac. Tech. 21, 171-176 (1998).

1997 (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett 70, 3335-3337 (1997).

1996 (1)

U. Fisher, T. Zinke, J. R. Kropp, F. Arndt, K. Petterman, "0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (1996).

1995 (1)

S. V. Burke, "The spectral index method for semiconductor rib and ridge waveguides," J. Progr. Electromagn. Res. 10, 41-74 (1995).

1992 (1)

R. Heidemann, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electronics Lett. 28, 3-5 (1992).

1991 (4)

P. L. Liu, B. J. Li, Y. S. Trisno, "In search of a linear electrooptic amplitude modulator," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 3, 144-146 (1991).

Y. Zhou, M. Izutsu, S. Member, T. Sueta, "Low-drive-power asymmetric Mach-Zehnder modulator with band-limited operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1-4 (1991).

H. Chung, W. S. C. Chang, E. L. Adler, "Modeling and optimization of traveling-wave LiNbo3 interferometric modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 27, (1991).

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).

1989 (2)

S. Member, "Overlap integral factors in integrated optic modulators and switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1063-1070 (1989).

T. Hiraoka, T. Tokumitsu, M. Aikawa, "Very small wide-band MMIC magic T's using microstrip lines on a thin dielectric film," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-37, 1569-1575 (1989).

1984 (1)

R. A. Becker, "Traveling-wave electro-optic modulator with maximum bandwidth-length product," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1168-1170 (1984).

1980 (1)

K. Kubota, J. Noda, O. Mikami, "Traveling wave optical modulator using a directional coupler LiNbO3waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 754-760 (1980).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, J. Kim, "Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634 (2002).

R. A. Becker, "Traveling-wave electro-optic modulator with maximum bandwidth-length product," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1168-1170 (1984).

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett 70, 3335-3337 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, A. Scherer, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, "Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3136 (2001).

Electron. Commun. Japan (1)

M. Konno, "Conductor loss in thin-film transmission lines," Electron. Commun. Japan 82, 83-91 (1999) pt. 2.

Electronics Lett. (1)

R. Heidemann, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electronics Lett. 28, 3-5 (1992).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Chung, W. S. C. Chang, E. L. Adler, "Modeling and optimization of traveling-wave LiNbo3 interferometric modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 27, (1991).

K. Igarashi, K. Kikuchi, "Optical signal processing by phase modulation and subsequent spectral filtering aiming at applications to ultrafast optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 551-565 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

T. Hiraoka, T. Tokumitsu, M. Aikawa, "Very small wide-band MMIC magic T's using microstrip lines on a thin dielectric film," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-37, 1569-1575 (1989).

C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. L. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 906-919 (2006).

IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. (1)

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, "Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Kubota, J. Noda, O. Mikami, "Traveling wave optical modulator using a directional coupler LiNbO3waveguide," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 754-760 (1980).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

P. L. Liu, B. J. Li, Y. S. Trisno, "In search of a linear electrooptic amplitude modulator," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 3, 144-146 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, J. Bechtel, "Push-pull poled polymer Mach-Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51-53 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

U. Fisher, T. Zinke, J. R. Kropp, F. Arndt, K. Petterman, "0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (1996).

IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manufac. Tech. (1)

G. E. Ponchak, S. Member, A. N. Downey, "Characterization of thin film microstrip lines on polyimide," IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manufac. Tech. 21, 171-176 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

D. Stephens, P. R. Young, S. Member, I. D. Robertson, S. Member, "Millimeter-wave substrate integrated waveguides and filters in photoimageable thick-film technology," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 3832-3838 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Member, "Overlap integral factors in integrated optic modulators and switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1063-1070 (1989).

J. Progr. Electromagn. Res. (1)

S. V. Burke, "The spectral index method for semiconductor rib and ridge waveguides," J. Progr. Electromagn. Res. 10, 41-74 (1995).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Federici, L. Moeller, "Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 111101–1-111101–22 (2010).

J. Chem. Rev. (1)

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, D. H. Bale, "Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: State of the art and future prospects," J. Chem. Rev. 110, 25-55 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

Y. Zhou, M. Izutsu, S. Member, T. Sueta, "Low-drive-power asymmetric Mach-Zehnder modulator with band-limited operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1-4 (1991).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

D. M. Gill, A. Chowdhury, "Electro-optic polymer-based modulator design and performance for 40 Gb/s system applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2145-2153 (2002).

B. M. A. Rahman, V. Haxha, S. Haxha, K. T. V. Grattan, "Design optimization of polymer electro-optic modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3506-3513 (2006).

J. Nanotechnology (1)

S. E. Thompson, S. Parthasarathy, "Moore's law: The future of Si microelectronics," J. Nanotechnology 9, 20-25 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

R. Mendis, D. M. Mittleman, "An investrigation of the lowest-order transverse-electric (TE1) mode of the parallel-plate waveguide for THz pulse propagation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 26, A6-A13 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B: Opt. Phys. (1)

G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. Mcgowan, D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B: Opt. Phys. 17, 851-863 (2000).

J. Science (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee, "Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," J. Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).

Nature (1)

K. Wang, D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature 432, 376-9 (2004).

Opt. Eng. (1)

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