Abstract

In this study, a model for calculating the bidirectional scattering properties of phosphor layer was established by considering the light absorption and light conversion of phosphor particle simultaneously. Based on the present model, the light extraction efficiency was calculated and validated by comparing with the existing experimental data and models. It is demonstrated that the present model predicts better. The transmission and reflection intensities of blue light and yellow light were found to be the functions of phosphor thickness. There exists a close critical phosphor thickness for reflected blue light and transmitted yellow light. The critical phosphor thickness is relative to the phosphor concentration.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. B. L. Wu, X. B. Luo, H. Zheng, S. Liu, "Effect of gold wire bonding process on angular correlated color temperature uniformity of white light-emitting diode," Opt. Exp. 19, 24115-24121 (2011).
  2. N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).
  3. H. Zheng, X. B. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. M. Wang, S. Liu, "Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," Opt. Exp. 20, 5092-5098 (2012).
  4. R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Zheng, Q. Zong, Z. Gan, B. Wu, S. Liu, "Design of a novel freeform lens for LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating," Opt. Exp. 20, 13727-13737 (2012).
  5. D. Bera, S. Maslov, J. W. Lee, J. G. Xue, F. So, P. H. Holloway, "Optimization of down-conversion phosphor films for high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Photon. Energy 1, 011025-1-011025-11 (2011).
  6. J. Andriessen, E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, "Lattice relaxation study of the 4f-5d excitation of Ce$^{3 +}$-doped LaCl$_{3}$, LaBr$_{3}$, and NaLaF$_{4}$: Stokes shift by pseudo Jahn-Teller effect," Phys. Rev. B 76, 075124-1-075124-9 (2007).
  7. M. G. Brik, N. M. Avram, "Electron-vibrational interaction in the 5d states of Ce$^{3 +}$ ions in halosulphate phosphors," Mater. Chem. Phys. 128, 326-330 (2011).
  8. A. K. Singh, S. Singh, D. Kumar, D. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, K. Kumar, "Light-into-heat conversion in La$_{2}$O$_{3}$:Er$^{3 +}$-Yb$^{3 +}$ phosphor: An incandescent emission," Opt. Lett. 37, 776-778 (2012).
  9. Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, "On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 123503-1-123503-4 (2012).
  10. C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2285-2291 (2011).
  11. Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, "Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white LED packaging," Appl. Opt. 49, 247-257 (2010).
  12. R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Zheng, S. Liu, "Optical constants study of YAG:Ce phosphor layer blended with SiO$_{2}$ particles by Mie theory for white light-emitting diode package," Front. Optoelectron. 5, 138-146 (2012).
  13. Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).
  14. C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).
  15. N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).
  16. C. H. Hung, C. H. Tien, "Phosphor-converted LED modeling by bidirectional photometric data," Opt. Exp. 18, A261-A271 (2010).
  17. D. Y. Kang, E. B. Wu, D. M. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102-1-231102-3 (2006).
  18. B. C. Li, D. W. Zhang, Y. S. Huang, Z. J. Ni, S. L. Zhuang, "A new structure of multi-layer phosphor package of white LED with high efficiency," Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 221-223 (2010).
  19. Y. T. Zhu, N. Narendran, "Investigation of remote-phosphor white light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 100203-1-100203-3 (2010).
  20. K. Ishida, I. Mitsuishi, Y. Hattori, S. Nunoue, "A revised Kubelka–Munk theory for spectral simulation of phosphor-based white light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241910-1-241910-3 (2008).
  21. P. Kubelka, "New contributions to the optics of intensity light-scattering materials—Part I," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 448-457 (1948).
  22. R. Hu, X. B. Luo, S. Liu, "Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1673-1675 (2011).
  23. R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Feng, S. Liu, "Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," J. Lumin. 132, 1252-1256 (2012).

2012 (6)

H. Zheng, X. B. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. M. Wang, S. Liu, "Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," Opt. Exp. 20, 5092-5098 (2012).

R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Zheng, Q. Zong, Z. Gan, B. Wu, S. Liu, "Design of a novel freeform lens for LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating," Opt. Exp. 20, 13727-13737 (2012).

A. K. Singh, S. Singh, D. Kumar, D. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, K. Kumar, "Light-into-heat conversion in La$_{2}$O$_{3}$:Er$^{3 +}$-Yb$^{3 +}$ phosphor: An incandescent emission," Opt. Lett. 37, 776-778 (2012).

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, "On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 123503-1-123503-4 (2012).

R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Zheng, S. Liu, "Optical constants study of YAG:Ce phosphor layer blended with SiO$_{2}$ particles by Mie theory for white light-emitting diode package," Front. Optoelectron. 5, 138-146 (2012).

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Feng, S. Liu, "Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," J. Lumin. 132, 1252-1256 (2012).

2011 (5)

M. G. Brik, N. M. Avram, "Electron-vibrational interaction in the 5d states of Ce$^{3 +}$ ions in halosulphate phosphors," Mater. Chem. Phys. 128, 326-330 (2011).

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, S. Liu, "Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1673-1675 (2011).

B. L. Wu, X. B. Luo, H. Zheng, S. Liu, "Effect of gold wire bonding process on angular correlated color temperature uniformity of white light-emitting diode," Opt. Exp. 19, 24115-24121 (2011).

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2285-2291 (2011).

D. Bera, S. Maslov, J. W. Lee, J. G. Xue, F. So, P. H. Holloway, "Optimization of down-conversion phosphor films for high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Photon. Energy 1, 011025-1-011025-11 (2011).

2010 (5)

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, "Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white LED packaging," Appl. Opt. 49, 247-257 (2010).

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).

C. H. Hung, C. H. Tien, "Phosphor-converted LED modeling by bidirectional photometric data," Opt. Exp. 18, A261-A271 (2010).

B. C. Li, D. W. Zhang, Y. S. Huang, Z. J. Ni, S. L. Zhuang, "A new structure of multi-layer phosphor package of white LED with high efficiency," Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 221-223 (2010).

Y. T. Zhu, N. Narendran, "Investigation of remote-phosphor white light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 100203-1-100203-3 (2010).

2009 (1)

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).

2008 (3)

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).

K. Ishida, I. Mitsuishi, Y. Hattori, S. Nunoue, "A revised Kubelka–Munk theory for spectral simulation of phosphor-based white light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241910-1-241910-3 (2008).

2007 (1)

J. Andriessen, E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, "Lattice relaxation study of the 4f-5d excitation of Ce$^{3 +}$-doped LaCl$_{3}$, LaBr$_{3}$, and NaLaF$_{4}$: Stokes shift by pseudo Jahn-Teller effect," Phys. Rev. B 76, 075124-1-075124-9 (2007).

2006 (1)

D. Y. Kang, E. B. Wu, D. M. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102-1-231102-3 (2006).

1948 (1)

P. Kubelka, "New contributions to the optics of intensity light-scattering materials—Part I," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 448-457 (1948).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, "Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white LED packaging," Appl. Opt. 49, 247-257 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Y. Kang, E. B. Wu, D. M. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102-1-231102-3 (2006).

K. Ishida, I. Mitsuishi, Y. Hattori, S. Nunoue, "A revised Kubelka–Munk theory for spectral simulation of phosphor-based white light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241910-1-241910-3 (2008).

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z. H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, "On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 123503-1-123503-4 (2012).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

B. C. Li, D. W. Zhang, Y. S. Huang, Z. J. Ni, S. L. Zhuang, "A new structure of multi-layer phosphor package of white LED with high efficiency," Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 221-223 (2010).

Front. Optoelectron. (1)

R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Zheng, S. Liu, "Optical constants study of YAG:Ce phosphor layer blended with SiO$_{2}$ particles by Mie theory for white light-emitting diode package," Front. Optoelectron. 5, 138-146 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, S. Liu, "Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1673-1675 (2011).

J. Lumin. (1)

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Feng, S. Liu, "Effect of phosphor settling on the optical performance of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," J. Lumin. 132, 1252-1256 (2012).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

P. Kubelka, "New contributions to the optics of intensity light-scattering materials—Part I," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 448-457 (1948).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of inhomogeneities in the phosphor distribution on the device performance of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3226-3232 (2010).

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, F. P. Wenzl, "The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2285-2291 (2011).

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).

J. Photon. Energy (1)

D. Bera, S. Maslov, J. W. Lee, J. G. Xue, F. So, P. H. Holloway, "Optimization of down-conversion phosphor films for high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes," J. Photon. Energy 1, 011025-1-011025-11 (2011).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. T. Zhu, N. Narendran, "Investigation of remote-phosphor white light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 100203-1-100203-3 (2010).

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. G. Brik, N. M. Avram, "Electron-vibrational interaction in the 5d states of Ce$^{3 +}$ ions in halosulphate phosphors," Mater. Chem. Phys. 128, 326-330 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (1)

H. Zheng, X. B. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. M. Wang, S. Liu, "Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes," Opt. Exp. 20, 5092-5098 (2012).

Opt. Exp. (3)

R. Hu, X. Luo, H. Zheng, Q. Zong, Z. Gan, B. Wu, S. Liu, "Design of a novel freeform lens for LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating," Opt. Exp. 20, 13727-13737 (2012).

C. H. Hung, C. H. Tien, "Phosphor-converted LED modeling by bidirectional photometric data," Opt. Exp. 18, A261-A271 (2010).

B. L. Wu, X. B. Luo, H. Zheng, S. Liu, "Effect of gold wire bonding process on angular correlated color temperature uniformity of white light-emitting diode," Opt. Exp. 19, 24115-24121 (2011).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Andriessen, E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, "Lattice relaxation study of the 4f-5d excitation of Ce$^{3 +}$-doped LaCl$_{3}$, LaBr$_{3}$, and NaLaF$_{4}$: Stokes shift by pseudo Jahn-Teller effect," Phys. Rev. B 76, 075124-1-075124-9 (2007).

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