Abstract

The protocol data rate governing data storage devices will increase to over 12 Gb/s by 2013 thereby imposing unmanageable cost and performance burdens on future digital data storage systems. The resulting performance bottleneck can be substantially reduced by conveying high-speed data optically instead of electronically. A novel active pluggable 82.5 Gb/s aggregate bit rate optical connector technology, the design and fabrication of a compact electro-optical printed circuit board to meet exacting specifications, and a method for low cost, high precision, passive optical assembly are presented. A demonstration platform was constructed to assess the viability of embedded electro-optical midplane technology in such systems including the first ever demonstration of a pluggable active optical waveguide printed circuit board connector. High-speed optical data transfer at 10.3125 Gb/s was demonstrated through a complex polymer waveguide interconnect layer embedded into a 262 mm × 240 mm × 4.3 mm electro-optical midplane. Bit error rates of less than 10<sup>-12</sup> and optical losses as low as 6 dB were demonstrated through nine multimode polymer wave guides with an aggregate data bandwidth of 92.8125 Gb/s.

© 2012 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. SearchStorage.com"Data storage trends 2011: Predictions of hot data storage technologies," (2011) http://searchstorage.techtarget.com/Data-storage-trends-2011-Predictions-of-hot-data-storage-technologies.
  2. C. Barrera, S. Wojtowecz, "Five storage trends for 2011," Computer World UK (2011) http://www.computerworlduk.com/in-depth/infrastructure/3258578/five-storage-trends-for-2011/.
  3. J. Gantz, D. Reinsel, "Extracting value from chaos," IDC iView 1-12 (2011).
  4. H. Cho, K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, K. C. Saraswat, "The delay, energy, and bandwidth comparisons between copper, carbon nanotube, and optical interconnects for local and global wiring application," IEEE Int. Interconnect Technol. Conf. (2007) pp. 135-137.
  5. F. Gisin, G. Dudnikov, "State of the art of electrical high speed backplanes in industry today and the transition to optical inter connects," Proc. Biophoton./Opt. Interconnects VLSI Photon./WBM Microcavities, Dig. LEOS Summer Top. Meet. (2004) pp. 7-8.
  6. W. Heirman, J. Dambre, I. Artundo, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, D. Stroobandt, J. V. Campenhout, "Predicting the performance of reconfigurable optical interconnects in distributed shared-memory systems," Photon Netw. Commun. 15, 25-40 (2008).
  7. J. A. Conway, S. Sahni, T. Szkopek, "Plasmonic interconnects versus conventional interconnects: A comparison of latency, cross-talk and energy costs," Opt. Exp. 15, 1069-1071 (2007).
  8. K.-H. Koo, H. Cho, P. Kapur, K. C. Saraswat, "Performance comparisons between carbon nanotubes, optical, and Cu for future high-performance on-chip interconnect applications," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3206-3215 (2007).
  9. "Storage bridge bay (SBB) specification," Storage Bridge Bay Working Group Inc. (2008) http://www.sbbwg.org.
  10. "Enterprise SSD form factor," SSD Form Factor Working Group (2011) http://www.ssdformfactor.org.
  11. "Serial attached SCSI master roadmap," (2011) http://www.scsita.org/sas_library/6gbs-sas/roadmap-1.
  12. W. T. Beyene, C. Yuan, "An accurate transient analysis of high-speed package interconnects," Analog Integr. Circuits Signal Process. 107-120 (2003).
  13. M. M. Pajovic, J. Yu, Z. Potocnik, A. Bhobe, "GigaHertz-range analysis of impedance profile and cavity resonances in multilayered PCBs," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 52, 179-188 (2010).
  14. H. W. Johnson, "High-speed backplane connectors," 2011 IEEE Int. Symp. Electromagn. Compat. (2011) pp. 612-618.
  15. W.-T. Huang, C.-H. Lu, D.-B. Lin, "Suppression of crosstalk using serpentine guard trace vias," Progr. Electromagn. Res. 109, 37-61 (2010).
  16. R. Ramzan, J. Fritzin, J. Dabrowski, C. Svensson, "Wideband low-reflection transmission lines for bare chip on multilayer PCB," ETRI J. 33, 335-343 (2011).
  17. H. F. Lee, C. Y. Chan, C. S. Tang, "Embedding capacitors and resistors into printed circuit boards using a sequential lamination technique," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 207, 72-88 (2008).
  18. F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, J. A. Kash, "160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32, 345-359 (2009).
  19. L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. Tan, D. Dolfi, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).
  20. R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, B. Offrein, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).
  21. S. Uhlig, “Micro-processing: Applied to optical interconnects and high-frequency packaging,”.
  22. P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, G. Troster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).
  23. N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, T. V. Clapp, "Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415-424 (2009).
  24. I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, "Transition, radiation and propagation loss in polymer multimode waveguide bends," Opt. Exp. 15, 669-679 (2007).
  25. K. Wang, I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, H. Baghsiahi, G. Yu, "Design rules for polymer multimode waveguide interconnects and design of waveguide layout for a highly constrained electrical-optical backplanes," Opt. Exp. , to be published.
  26. I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. C. A. Pitwon, D. Milward, "Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502-511 (2008).
  27. K. Wang, D. R. Selviah, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, F. A. Fernandez, "Photolithographically manufactured acrylate polymer multimode optical waveguide loss design rules," Proc. 2nd Electron. System-Integr. Technol. Conf. (2008) pp. 1251-1256.
  28. "Datasheet: 10 Gbps dual rate 850 nm multi-mode XFP transceivers," MRV Communications, Inc. (2010) www.mrv.com.
  29. R. C. A. Pitwon, C. Smith, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, D. R. Selviah, M. Halter, A. Worrall, "Polymer optical waveguides with reduced in-plane bend loss for electro-optical PCBs," Proc. SPIE (2012).
  30. H. Baghsiahi, K. Wang, W. Kandulski, R. Ferguson, D. R. Selviah, "Reduction of the end facet roughness of photo lithographically fabricated polyacrylate multimode optical waveguide," Opt. Exp. , to be published.
  31. I. D. Johnson, R. C. A. Pitwon, D. R. Selviah, I. Papakonstantinou, Optical printed circuit board and manufacturing method U.S. Patent WO2007/0101842006.
  32. D. R. Selviah, F. Fernandez, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, "Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing," Circuit World 34, 21-26 (2008).
  33. R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, K. McPherson, Optical connector, a communication system and a method of connecting a user circuit to an optical transceiver U.S. Patent WO2006/129069.
  34. R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, D. Milward, M. Muggeridge, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, "Passive assembly of parallel optical devices onto polymer-based optical printed circuit boards," Circuit World 36, 3-11 (2010).
  35. 10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable Module INF-8077i (2005).
  36. "Datasheet: 10 Gbps 850 nm multi-mode SFP${+}$ transceiver," MRV Communications, Inc. (2010) www.mrv.com.

2011 (2)

J. Gantz, D. Reinsel, "Extracting value from chaos," IDC iView 1-12 (2011).

R. Ramzan, J. Fritzin, J. Dabrowski, C. Svensson, "Wideband low-reflection transmission lines for bare chip on multilayer PCB," ETRI J. 33, 335-343 (2011).

2010 (3)

M. M. Pajovic, J. Yu, Z. Potocnik, A. Bhobe, "GigaHertz-range analysis of impedance profile and cavity resonances in multilayered PCBs," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 52, 179-188 (2010).

W.-T. Huang, C.-H. Lu, D.-B. Lin, "Suppression of crosstalk using serpentine guard trace vias," Progr. Electromagn. Res. 109, 37-61 (2010).

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, D. Milward, M. Muggeridge, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, "Passive assembly of parallel optical devices onto polymer-based optical printed circuit boards," Circuit World 36, 3-11 (2010).

2009 (2)

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, J. A. Kash, "160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32, 345-359 (2009).

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, T. V. Clapp, "Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415-424 (2009).

2008 (5)

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. C. A. Pitwon, D. Milward, "Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502-511 (2008).

D. R. Selviah, F. Fernandez, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, "Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing," Circuit World 34, 21-26 (2008).

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, B. Offrein, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).

H. F. Lee, C. Y. Chan, C. S. Tang, "Embedding capacitors and resistors into printed circuit boards using a sequential lamination technique," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 207, 72-88 (2008).

W. Heirman, J. Dambre, I. Artundo, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, D. Stroobandt, J. V. Campenhout, "Predicting the performance of reconfigurable optical interconnects in distributed shared-memory systems," Photon Netw. Commun. 15, 25-40 (2008).

2007 (3)

J. A. Conway, S. Sahni, T. Szkopek, "Plasmonic interconnects versus conventional interconnects: A comparison of latency, cross-talk and energy costs," Opt. Exp. 15, 1069-1071 (2007).

K.-H. Koo, H. Cho, P. Kapur, K. C. Saraswat, "Performance comparisons between carbon nanotubes, optical, and Cu for future high-performance on-chip interconnect applications," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3206-3215 (2007).

I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, "Transition, radiation and propagation loss in polymer multimode waveguide bends," Opt. Exp. 15, 669-679 (2007).

2006 (1)

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. Tan, D. Dolfi, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

2003 (2)

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, G. Troster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).

W. T. Beyene, C. Yuan, "An accurate transient analysis of high-speed package interconnects," Analog Integr. Circuits Signal Process. 107-120 (2003).

Analog Integr. Circuits Signal Process. (1)

W. T. Beyene, C. Yuan, "An accurate transient analysis of high-speed package interconnects," Analog Integr. Circuits Signal Process. 107-120 (2003).

Circuit World (2)

D. R. Selviah, F. Fernandez, I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, H. Bagshiahi, A. C. Walker, A. McCarthy, H. Suyal, D. A. Hutt, P. P. Conway, J. Chappell, S. S. Zakariyah, D. Milward, "Integrated optical and electronic interconnect printed circuit board manufacturing," Circuit World 34, 21-26 (2008).

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, D. Milward, M. Muggeridge, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, "Passive assembly of parallel optical devices onto polymer-based optical printed circuit boards," Circuit World 36, 3-11 (2010).

ETRI J. (1)

R. Ramzan, J. Fritzin, J. Dabrowski, C. Svensson, "Wideband low-reflection transmission lines for bare chip on multilayer PCB," ETRI J. 33, 335-343 (2011).

IDC iView (1)

J. Gantz, D. Reinsel, "Extracting value from chaos," IDC iView 1-12 (2011).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, T. V. Clapp, "Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415-424 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Lukowicz, J. Jahns, R. Barbieri, P. Benabes, T. Bierhoff, A. Gauthier, M. Jarczynski, G. A. Russell, J. Schrage, W. Sullau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, G. Troster, "Optoelectronic interconnection technology in the HOLMS system," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 624-635 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (3)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, B. Offrein, "Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759-767 (2008).

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. C. A. Pitwon, D. Milward, "Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502-511 (2008).

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, J. A. Kash, "160 Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 32, 345-359 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. (1)

M. M. Pajovic, J. Yu, Z. Potocnik, A. Bhobe, "GigaHertz-range analysis of impedance profile and cavity resonances in multilayered PCBs," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 52, 179-188 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

K.-H. Koo, H. Cho, P. Kapur, K. C. Saraswat, "Performance comparisons between carbon nanotubes, optical, and Cu for future high-performance on-chip interconnect applications," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 3206-3215 (2007).

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (1)

H. F. Lee, C. Y. Chan, C. S. Tang, "Embedding capacitors and resistors into printed circuit boards using a sequential lamination technique," J. Mater. Process. Technol. 207, 72-88 (2008).

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. Tan, D. Dolfi, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (2)

J. A. Conway, S. Sahni, T. Szkopek, "Plasmonic interconnects versus conventional interconnects: A comparison of latency, cross-talk and energy costs," Opt. Exp. 15, 1069-1071 (2007).

I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, "Transition, radiation and propagation loss in polymer multimode waveguide bends," Opt. Exp. 15, 669-679 (2007).

Photon Netw. Commun. (1)

W. Heirman, J. Dambre, I. Artundo, C. Debaes, H. Thienpont, D. Stroobandt, J. V. Campenhout, "Predicting the performance of reconfigurable optical interconnects in distributed shared-memory systems," Photon Netw. Commun. 15, 25-40 (2008).

Progr. Electromagn. Res. (1)

W.-T. Huang, C.-H. Lu, D.-B. Lin, "Suppression of crosstalk using serpentine guard trace vias," Progr. Electromagn. Res. 109, 37-61 (2010).

Other (18)

S. Uhlig, “Micro-processing: Applied to optical interconnects and high-frequency packaging,”.

K. Wang, D. R. Selviah, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, F. A. Fernandez, "Photolithographically manufactured acrylate polymer multimode optical waveguide loss design rules," Proc. 2nd Electron. System-Integr. Technol. Conf. (2008) pp. 1251-1256.

"Datasheet: 10 Gbps dual rate 850 nm multi-mode XFP transceivers," MRV Communications, Inc. (2010) www.mrv.com.

R. C. A. Pitwon, C. Smith, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, D. R. Selviah, M. Halter, A. Worrall, "Polymer optical waveguides with reduced in-plane bend loss for electro-optical PCBs," Proc. SPIE (2012).

H. Baghsiahi, K. Wang, W. Kandulski, R. Ferguson, D. R. Selviah, "Reduction of the end facet roughness of photo lithographically fabricated polyacrylate multimode optical waveguide," Opt. Exp. , to be published.

I. D. Johnson, R. C. A. Pitwon, D. R. Selviah, I. Papakonstantinou, Optical printed circuit board and manufacturing method U.S. Patent WO2007/0101842006.

K. Wang, I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, H. Baghsiahi, G. Yu, "Design rules for polymer multimode waveguide interconnects and design of waveguide layout for a highly constrained electrical-optical backplanes," Opt. Exp. , to be published.

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, K. McPherson, Optical connector, a communication system and a method of connecting a user circuit to an optical transceiver U.S. Patent WO2006/129069.

10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable Module INF-8077i (2005).

"Datasheet: 10 Gbps 850 nm multi-mode SFP${+}$ transceiver," MRV Communications, Inc. (2010) www.mrv.com.

H. W. Johnson, "High-speed backplane connectors," 2011 IEEE Int. Symp. Electromagn. Compat. (2011) pp. 612-618.

"Storage bridge bay (SBB) specification," Storage Bridge Bay Working Group Inc. (2008) http://www.sbbwg.org.

"Enterprise SSD form factor," SSD Form Factor Working Group (2011) http://www.ssdformfactor.org.

"Serial attached SCSI master roadmap," (2011) http://www.scsita.org/sas_library/6gbs-sas/roadmap-1.

H. Cho, K.-H. Koo, P. Kapur, K. C. Saraswat, "The delay, energy, and bandwidth comparisons between copper, carbon nanotube, and optical interconnects for local and global wiring application," IEEE Int. Interconnect Technol. Conf. (2007) pp. 135-137.

F. Gisin, G. Dudnikov, "State of the art of electrical high speed backplanes in industry today and the transition to optical inter connects," Proc. Biophoton./Opt. Interconnects VLSI Photon./WBM Microcavities, Dig. LEOS Summer Top. Meet. (2004) pp. 7-8.

SearchStorage.com"Data storage trends 2011: Predictions of hot data storage technologies," (2011) http://searchstorage.techtarget.com/Data-storage-trends-2011-Predictions-of-hot-data-storage-technologies.

C. Barrera, S. Wojtowecz, "Five storage trends for 2011," Computer World UK (2011) http://www.computerworlduk.com/in-depth/infrastructure/3258578/five-storage-trends-for-2011/.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.