Abstract

A combined interrogation and signal processing technique which facilitates high-speed simultaneous static and dynamic strain demodulation of multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensors is described. The scheme integrates passive, interferometric wavelength-demodulation and fast optical switching between wavelength division multiplexer channels with signal extraction via a software lock-in amplifier and fast Fourier transform. Static and dynamic strain measurements with noise floors of 1 nε and ~10 nε/√Hz, between 5 mHz and 2 kHz were obtained. An inverse analysis applied to a cantilever beam set up was used to characterize and verify strain measurements using finite element modeling. By providing distributed measurements of both ultra-high-resolution static and dynamic strain, the proposed scheme will facilitate advanced structural health monitoring.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. J. M. López-Higuera, L. R. Cobo, A. Q. Incera, A. Cobo, "Fiber optic sensors in structural health monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 587-608 (2011).
  2. A. Kersey, M. Davis, H. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, E. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
  3. N. Serker, Z. Wu, "Structural health monitoring using static and dynamic strain data from long-gage distributed FBG sensor," Proc. IABSEJSCE Joint Conf. Adv. Bridge Eng.—II (2010) pp. 519-526.
  4. Q. Liu, T. Tokunaga, Z. He, "Sub-nano resolution fiber-optic static strain sensor using a sideband interrogation technique," Opt. Lett. 37, 434-436 (2012).
  5. A. Arie, B. Lissak, M. Tur, "Static fiber-Bragg grating strain sensing using frequency-locked lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1849-1855 (1999).
  6. J. H. Chow, D. E. McClelland, M. B. Gray, I. C. M. Littler, "Demonstration of a passive subpicostrain fiber strain sensor," Opt. Lett. 30, 1923-1925 (2005).
  7. Y. Wang, Y. Cui, B. Yun, "A fiber Bragg grating sensor system for simultaneously static and dynamic measurements with a wavelength-swept fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (2006).
  8. P. Antunes, H. Lima, H. Varum, P. Andre, "Optical fiber sensors for static and dynamic health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructures: Abode wall case study," Measurement 45, 1695-1705 (2012).
  9. Z. Bazant, "Prediction of concrete creep and shrinkage: Past, present and future," Nucl. Eng. Des 203, 27-38 (2001).
  10. P. Ferraro, G. D. Natale, "On the possible use of optical fiber Bragg gratings as strain sensors for geodynamical monitoring," Opt. Laser. Eng. 37, 115-130 (2002).
  11. M. Todd, G. Johnson, C. Chang, "Passive, light intensity-independent interferometric method for fibre Bragg grating interrogation," Elec. Lett. 35, 784-786 (1999).
  12. P. Orr, P. Niewczas, "High-speed, solid state, interferometric interrogator and multiplexer for fibre Bragg grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 1-1 (2011).
  13. M. I. Friswell, "Damage identification using inverse methods," Royal Society of London Philosophical Transactions Series A 365, 393-410 (2007).
  14. A. Othonos, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).
  15. Y. Rao, "In-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1997).
  16. P. E. Greene, Fiber Optic Networks (Prentice-Hall, 1993).
  17. M. Todd, M. Seaver, F. Bucholtz, "Improved, operationally passive interferometric demodulation method using 3 x 3 coupler," Electron. Lett. 38, 784-786 (2002).
  18. M. Boas, Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences (Wiley, 2005).
  19. J. Scofield, "A frequency-domain description of a lock-in amplifier," Amer. J. Phys. 62, 129-133 (1994).
  20. R. Burdett, Amplitude Modulated Signals: The Lock-In Amplifier (Wiley, 2005).

2012

P. Antunes, H. Lima, H. Varum, P. Andre, "Optical fiber sensors for static and dynamic health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructures: Abode wall case study," Measurement 45, 1695-1705 (2012).

Q. Liu, T. Tokunaga, Z. He, "Sub-nano resolution fiber-optic static strain sensor using a sideband interrogation technique," Opt. Lett. 37, 434-436 (2012).

2011

J. M. López-Higuera, L. R. Cobo, A. Q. Incera, A. Cobo, "Fiber optic sensors in structural health monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 587-608 (2011).

P. Orr, P. Niewczas, "High-speed, solid state, interferometric interrogator and multiplexer for fibre Bragg grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 1-1 (2011).

2007

M. I. Friswell, "Damage identification using inverse methods," Royal Society of London Philosophical Transactions Series A 365, 393-410 (2007).

2006

Y. Wang, Y. Cui, B. Yun, "A fiber Bragg grating sensor system for simultaneously static and dynamic measurements with a wavelength-swept fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (2006).

2005

2002

M. Todd, M. Seaver, F. Bucholtz, "Improved, operationally passive interferometric demodulation method using 3 x 3 coupler," Electron. Lett. 38, 784-786 (2002).

P. Ferraro, G. D. Natale, "On the possible use of optical fiber Bragg gratings as strain sensors for geodynamical monitoring," Opt. Laser. Eng. 37, 115-130 (2002).

2001

Z. Bazant, "Prediction of concrete creep and shrinkage: Past, present and future," Nucl. Eng. Des 203, 27-38 (2001).

1999

M. Todd, G. Johnson, C. Chang, "Passive, light intensity-independent interferometric method for fibre Bragg grating interrogation," Elec. Lett. 35, 784-786 (1999).

A. Arie, B. Lissak, M. Tur, "Static fiber-Bragg grating strain sensing using frequency-locked lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1849-1855 (1999).

1997

A. Kersey, M. Davis, H. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, E. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

Y. Rao, "In-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1997).

1994

J. Scofield, "A frequency-domain description of a lock-in amplifier," Amer. J. Phys. 62, 129-133 (1994).

Amer. J. Phys.

J. Scofield, "A frequency-domain description of a lock-in amplifier," Amer. J. Phys. 62, 129-133 (1994).

Elec. Lett.

M. Todd, G. Johnson, C. Chang, "Passive, light intensity-independent interferometric method for fibre Bragg grating interrogation," Elec. Lett. 35, 784-786 (1999).

Electron. Lett.

M. Todd, M. Seaver, F. Bucholtz, "Improved, operationally passive interferometric demodulation method using 3 x 3 coupler," Electron. Lett. 38, 784-786 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Wang, Y. Cui, B. Yun, "A fiber Bragg grating sensor system for simultaneously static and dynamic measurements with a wavelength-swept fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.

P. Orr, P. Niewczas, "High-speed, solid state, interferometric interrogator and multiplexer for fibre Bragg grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 1-1 (2011).

J. M. López-Higuera, L. R. Cobo, A. Q. Incera, A. Cobo, "Fiber optic sensors in structural health monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 587-608 (2011).

A. Kersey, M. Davis, H. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. Koo, C. Askins, M. Putnam, E. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

A. Arie, B. Lissak, M. Tur, "Static fiber-Bragg grating strain sensing using frequency-locked lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1849-1855 (1999).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

Y. Rao, "In-fibre Bragg grating sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1997).

Measurement

P. Antunes, H. Lima, H. Varum, P. Andre, "Optical fiber sensors for static and dynamic health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructures: Abode wall case study," Measurement 45, 1695-1705 (2012).

Nucl. Eng. Des

Z. Bazant, "Prediction of concrete creep and shrinkage: Past, present and future," Nucl. Eng. Des 203, 27-38 (2001).

Opt. Laser. Eng.

P. Ferraro, G. D. Natale, "On the possible use of optical fiber Bragg gratings as strain sensors for geodynamical monitoring," Opt. Laser. Eng. 37, 115-130 (2002).

Opt. Lett.

Royal Society of London Philosophical Transactions Series A

M. I. Friswell, "Damage identification using inverse methods," Royal Society of London Philosophical Transactions Series A 365, 393-410 (2007).

Other

A. Othonos, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

P. E. Greene, Fiber Optic Networks (Prentice-Hall, 1993).

M. Boas, Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences (Wiley, 2005).

N. Serker, Z. Wu, "Structural health monitoring using static and dynamic strain data from long-gage distributed FBG sensor," Proc. IABSEJSCE Joint Conf. Adv. Bridge Eng.—II (2010) pp. 519-526.

R. Burdett, Amplitude Modulated Signals: The Lock-In Amplifier (Wiley, 2005).

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