Abstract

In this paper, two different Passive Mode-Locked Laser Diodes (PMLLD) structures, a Fabry–Perot cavity and a ring cavity laser are characterized and evaluated as monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generators (OFCG) for CW sub-THz generation. An extensive characterization of the devices under study is carried out based on an automated measurement system that systematically evaluates the dynamic characteristics of the devices, focusing on the figures of merit that define the optimum performance of a pulsed laser source when considered as an OFCG. Sub-THz signals generated with both devices at 60 GHz and 90 GHz are presented and analyzed in terms of electrical linewidth to compare such components for mm-Wave and sub-THz photonic generation. This work offers a systematic comparison of PMLLD devices for OFCG operation and provides reference information of the performance of two different device topologies that can be used for the implementation of photonic integrated sub-THz CW generation.

© 2012 IEEE

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  9. R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 245-260 (2011).
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  24. S. Pengbo, N. J. Gomes, P. A. Davies, P. G. Huggard, B. N. Ellison, "Analysis and demonstration of a fast tunable fiber-ring-based optical frequency comb generator," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3257-3264 (2007).
  25. A. R. Johnson, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, J. Cardenas, K. Saha, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Chip-based frequency combs with sub-100 GHz repetition rates," Opt. Lett. 37, 875-877 (2012).
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  27. Y. K. Chen, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, M. A. Chin, "Multicolor single-wavelength sources generated by a monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked quantum well laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 971-973 (1991).
  28. J. Hasch, E. Topak, R. Schnabel, T. Zwick, R. Weigel, C. Waldschmidt, "Millimeter-wave technology for automotive radar sensors in the 77 GHz frequency band," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 845-860 (2012).
  29. E. Rouvalis, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, "Millimeter-wave optoelectronic mixers based on uni-traveling carrier photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 686-691 (2012).
  30. T. Yasui, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. Nagatsuma, T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency metrology based on frequency comb," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 191-201 (2011).
  31. D. Eliyahu, R. A. Salvatore, A. Yariv, "Noise characterization of a pulse train generated by actively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 13, 1619-1626 (1996).
  32. D. Eliyahu, R. A. Salvatore, A. Yariv, "Effect of noise on the power spectrum of passively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 14, 167-174 (1997).
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2012 (4)

A. R. Criado, P. Acedo, G. Carpintero, C. De Dios, K. Yvind, "Observation of phase noise reduction in photonically synthesized sub-THz signals using a passively mode-locked laser diode and highly selective optical filtering," Opt. Exp. 20, 1253-1260 (2012).

J. Hasch, E. Topak, R. Schnabel, T. Zwick, R. Weigel, C. Waldschmidt, "Millimeter-wave technology for automotive radar sensors in the 77 GHz frequency band," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 845-860 (2012).

E. Rouvalis, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, "Millimeter-wave optoelectronic mixers based on uni-traveling carrier photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 686-691 (2012).

A. R. Johnson, Y. Okawachi, J. S. Levy, J. Cardenas, K. Saha, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Chip-based frequency combs with sub-100 GHz repetition rates," Opt. Lett. 37, 875-877 (2012).

2011 (9)

T. Yasui, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. Nagatsuma, T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency metrology based on frequency comb," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 191-201 (2011).

E. Rouvalis, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, "Optoelectronic detection of millimetre-wave signals with travelling-wave uni-travelling carrier photodiodes," Opt. Exp. 19, 2079-2084 (2011).

M. Feiginov, C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, P. Meissner, "Resonant-tunnelling-diode oscillators operating at frequencies above 1.1 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) Art. ID 233506.

S. Preu, "Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 061301 (2011).

X. Leijtens, "JePPIX: The platform for indium phosphide-based photonics," IET Optoelectron. 5, 202-206 (2011).

L. A. Coldren, S. C. Nicholes, L. Johansson, S. Ristic, R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, U. Krishnamachari, "High performance INP-based photonic ICs—A tutorial," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 554-570 (2011).

"A new phase for THz," Electron. Lett. 47, 1255-1255 (2011).

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 245-260 (2011).

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part II: Energy limitations in networks," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 261-274 (2011).

2010 (2)

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, A. J. Seeds, "Traveling-wave uni-traveling carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation," Opt. Exp. 18, 11105-11110 (2010).

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, M. Koch, "Terahertz imaging: Applications and perspectives," Appl. Opt. 49, E48-E57 (2010).

2009 (2)

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum-dot laser diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 389-391 (2009).

T. Nagatsuma, "Generating millimeter and terahertz waves," IEEE Microw. Mag. 10, 64-74 (2009).

2008 (2)

H. W. Hubers, "Terahertz heterodyne receivers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 378-391 (2008).

S. Ho-Jin, N. Shimizu, T. Furuta, K. Suizu, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, "Broadband-frequency-tunable sub-terahertz wave generation using an optical comb, AWGs, optical switches, and a uni-traveling carrier photodiode for spectroscopic applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2521-2530 (2008).

2007 (4)

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, E. R. Brown, "Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 212115.

S. Pengbo, N. J. Gomes, P. A. Davies, P. G. Huggard, B. N. Ellison, "Analysis and demonstration of a fast tunable fiber-ring-based optical frequency comb generator," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3257-3264 (2007).

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, "Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photon. 1, 97-105 (2007).

2006 (1)

P. Acedo, H. Lamela, S. Garidel, C. Roda, J. P. Vilcot, G. Carpintero, I. H. White, K. A. Williams, M. Thompson, W. Li, M. Pessa, M. Dumitrescu, S. Hansmann, "Spectral characterisation of monolithic modelocked lasers for mm-wave generation and signal processing," Electron. Lett. 42, 928-929 (2006).

2004 (3)

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).

P. F. Taday, "Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences," Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. London A, Math., Phys. Eng. Sci. 362, 351-364 (2004) 2004.

K. Yvind, D. Larsson, L. J. Christiansen, J. Mork, J. M. Hvam, J. Hanberg, "High-performance 10 GHz all-active monolithic modelocked semiconductor lasers," Electron. Lett. 40, 735-737 (2004).

2002 (1)

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).

1997 (1)

D. Eliyahu, R. A. Salvatore, A. Yariv, "Effect of noise on the power spectrum of passively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 14, 167-174 (1997).

1996 (1)

D. Eliyahu, R. A. Salvatore, A. Yariv, "Noise characterization of a pulse train generated by actively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 13, 1619-1626 (1996).

1991 (1)

Y. K. Chen, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, M. A. Chin, "Multicolor single-wavelength sources generated by a monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked quantum well laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 971-973 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Feiginov, C. Sydlo, O. Cojocari, P. Meissner, "Resonant-tunnelling-diode oscillators operating at frequencies above 1.1 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) Art. ID 233506.

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, E. R. Brown, "Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 212115.

Electron. Lett. (2)

"A new phase for THz," Electron. Lett. 47, 1255-1255 (2011).

K. Yvind, D. Larsson, L. J. Christiansen, J. Mork, J. M. Hvam, J. Hanberg, "High-performance 10 GHz all-active monolithic modelocked semiconductor lasers," Electron. Lett. 40, 735-737 (2004).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Acedo, H. Lamela, S. Garidel, C. Roda, J. P. Vilcot, G. Carpintero, I. H. White, K. A. Williams, M. Thompson, W. Li, M. Pessa, M. Dumitrescu, S. Hansmann, "Spectral characterisation of monolithic modelocked lasers for mm-wave generation and signal processing," Electron. Lett. 42, 928-929 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum-dot laser diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 389-391 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

E. Rouvalis, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, "Millimeter-wave optoelectronic mixers based on uni-traveling carrier photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 686-691 (2012).

IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. (1)

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, T. Kurner, "Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: Concepts and perspectives," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49, 24-39 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 245-260 (2011).

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part II: Energy limitations in networks," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 261-274 (2011).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

H. W. Hubers, "Terahertz heterodyne receivers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 378-391 (2008).

T. Yasui, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. Nagatsuma, T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency metrology based on frequency comb," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 191-201 (2011).

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

T. Nagatsuma, "Generating millimeter and terahertz waves," IEEE Microw. Mag. 10, 64-74 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. K. Chen, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, M. A. Chin, "Multicolor single-wavelength sources generated by a monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked quantum well laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 971-973 (1991).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. Hasch, E. Topak, R. Schnabel, T. Zwick, R. Weigel, C. Waldschmidt, "Millimeter-wave technology for automotive radar sensors in the 77 GHz frequency band," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60, 845-860 (2012).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).

IET Optoelectron. (1)

X. Leijtens, "JePPIX: The platform for indium phosphide-based photonics," IET Optoelectron. 5, 202-206 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Ho-Jin, N. Shimizu, T. Furuta, K. Suizu, H. Ito, T. Nagatsuma, "Broadband-frequency-tunable sub-terahertz wave generation using an optical comb, AWGs, optical switches, and a uni-traveling carrier photodiode for spectroscopic applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2521-2530 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

D. Eliyahu, R. A. Salvatore, A. Yariv, "Noise characterization of a pulse train generated by actively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 13, 1619-1626 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Preu, "Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 061301 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

L. A. Coldren, S. C. Nicholes, L. Johansson, S. Ristic, R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, U. Krishnamachari, "High performance INP-based photonic ICs—A tutorial," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 554-570 (2011).

S. Pengbo, N. J. Gomes, P. A. Davies, P. G. Huggard, B. N. Ellison, "Analysis and demonstration of a fast tunable fiber-ring-based optical frequency comb generator," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3257-3264 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

D. Eliyahu, R. A. Salvatore, A. Yariv, "Effect of noise on the power spectrum of passively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 14, 167-174 (1997).

Nat. Photon. (1)

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photon. 1, 97-105 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (3)

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, A. J. Seeds, "Traveling-wave uni-traveling carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation," Opt. Exp. 18, 11105-11110 (2010).

A. R. Criado, P. Acedo, G. Carpintero, C. De Dios, K. Yvind, "Observation of phase noise reduction in photonically synthesized sub-THz signals using a passively mode-locked laser diode and highly selective optical filtering," Opt. Exp. 20, 1253-1260 (2012).

E. Rouvalis, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, "Optoelectronic detection of millimetre-wave signals with travelling-wave uni-travelling carrier photodiodes," Opt. Exp. 19, 2079-2084 (2011).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. London A, Math., Phys. Eng. Sci. (1)

P. F. Taday, "Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences," Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. London A, Math., Phys. Eng. Sci. 362, 351-364 (2004) 2004.

Other (2)

W. R. Tribe, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, M. C. Kemp, "Hidden object detection: Security applications of terahertz technology," San JoseCA (2004) pp. 168-176.

A. Masaaki, A. Ryota, S. Hiroshi, K. Ikufumi, I. Tadashi, M. Katsuhiko, I. Hiromasa, "Ultrabroadband THz field detection beyond 170 THz with a photoconductive antenna," Proc. CLEO (2008).

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