Abstract

Dielectric loaded gratings (DLGs) comprised of polymer gratings lying on a thin gold film are used to couple light at telecommunication frequencies in and out of plasmonic waveguides featuring sub-micron cross-sections. The grating couplers are found to be efficient and easy to implement to perform direct fiber-to-fiber telecommunication characterizations of dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide (DLSPPW) components. By analyzing the dispersion of the plasmonic Bloch modes supported by DLGs as a function of the period and the filling factor of the gratings, efficient couplers comprised of gratings with a filling factor around 0.5 are designed and fabricated by a simple one-step electron beam lithography process. Typical losses in the range of -10 dB per coupler are obtained for gratings designed to operate at normal and 30°-tilted incidence. The performance of the couplers for normal incidence can be further improved by adding a back-reflecting Bragg mirror. We demonstrate the transmission of a 10 Gbits/s signal along a 75 μm-long DLSPPW by using DLG couplers for light injection and extraction. A power penalty below below 0.4 dB on the bit-error-rate has been measured over the entire C-band demonstrating the suitability of DLSPPWs for Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed high bit rate traffic and the efficiency of DLG couplers for fiber-to-fiber characterizations of stand alone DLSPPW components.

© 2012 IEEE

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2011 (4)

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Thermo-optical control of dielectric loaded plasmonic racetrack resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 110, (2011) Art. ID 023106.

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, O. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriesis, "Thermo-optic plasmo-photonic mode interference switches based on dielectric loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) Art. ID 241110.

S. Papaioannou, C. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. Kriezis, N. Pleros, "A 320 Gb/s-throughput 2 x 2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3185-3195 (2011).

X. Li, H. Lingling, Q. Tan, B. Benfeng, G. Jin, "Integrated plasmonic semi-circular launcher for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," Opt. Exp. 19, 6541-6547 (2011).

2010 (6)

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Thermo-optic control of dielectric loaded plasmonic waveguide components," Opt. Exp. 18, 1207-1216 (2010).

J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, S. Massenot, A. Dereux, "Fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 5314-5319 (2010).

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, "Dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite width metal strip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 063105.

A. Krishnan, S. P. Frisbie, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, "Plasmon stimulated emission in arrays of bimetallic structures coated with dye-doped dielectric," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 111104.

C. Chen, P. Berini, "Grating couplers for broadside input and output coupling of long-range surface plasmons," Opt. Exp. 18, 8006-8018 (2010).

S. Randhawa, M. U. Gonzalez, J. Renger, S. Enoch, R. Quidant, "Design and properties of dielectric surface plasmon bragg mirrors," Opt. Exp. 18, 14 496-14 510 (2010).

2009 (3)

I. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, A. Boltasseva, "Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons," Opt. Exp. 17, 7228-7232 (2009).

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, A. Dereux, "Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength," Nano Lett. 9, 2935-2939 (2009).

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, A. Zayats, "Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 051111.

2008 (2)

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Krasavin, P. Bolger, A. Zayats, "Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 78, 1-8 (2008).

I. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, A. Boltasseva, "Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges," Phys. Rev. B 78, (2008) Art. ID 115115.

2007 (4)

J. Renger, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, "Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surface thin films," Phys. Rev. B 76, (2007) Art. ID 045431.

A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, "Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 211101.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 75, (2007) Art. ID 245405.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, R. Baets, "Compact and highly efficient grating coupler between optical fiber and Nanophotonic waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 151-155 (2007).

2006 (4)

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) Art. ID 094104.

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozevolnyi, "Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 31, 1307-1309 (2006).

G. Levêque, O. J. F. Martin, "Optimization of finite diffraction gratings for the excitation of surface plasmons," J. Appl. Phys. 100, (2006) Art. ID 124301.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) Art. ID 091117.

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).

1999 (1)

E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, K. , "Determination of guided and leaky modes in lossless and lossy planar multilayer optical waveguides: Reflection pole method and wavevector density method," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 929-941 (1999).

1996 (1)

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, J. R. Sambles, "Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings," Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227-6244 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, "Dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite width metal strip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 063105.

A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, "Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 211101.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, A. Zayats, "Wavelength selection by dielectric-loaded plasmonic components," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 051111.

A. Krishnan, S. P. Frisbie, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, "Plasmon stimulated emission in arrays of bimetallic structures coated with dye-doped dielectric," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 111104.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) Art. ID 094104.

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, O. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriesis, "Thermo-optic plasmo-photonic mode interference switches based on dielectric loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) Art. ID 241110.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3665-3667 (2003).

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) Art. ID 091117.

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Thermo-optical control of dielectric loaded plasmonic racetrack resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 110, (2011) Art. ID 023106.

G. Levêque, O. J. F. Martin, "Optimization of finite diffraction gratings for the excitation of surface plasmons," J. Appl. Phys. 100, (2006) Art. ID 124301.

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, K. , "Determination of guided and leaky modes in lossless and lossy planar multilayer optical waveguides: Reflection pole method and wavevector density method," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 929-941 (1999).

S. Papaioannou, C. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. Kriezis, N. Pleros, "A 320 Gb/s-throughput 2 x 2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3185-3195 (2011).

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, R. Baets, "Compact and highly efficient grating coupler between optical fiber and Nanophotonic waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 151-155 (2007).

Nano Lett. (2)

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, H. A. Atwater, "Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides," Nano Lett. 10, 4851-4857.

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, A. Dereux, "Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength," Nano Lett. 9, 2935-2939 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (6)

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, "Thermo-optic control of dielectric loaded plasmonic waveguide components," Opt. Exp. 18, 1207-1216 (2010).

J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, S. Massenot, A. Dereux, "Fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 5314-5319 (2010).

X. Li, H. Lingling, Q. Tan, B. Benfeng, G. Jin, "Integrated plasmonic semi-circular launcher for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," Opt. Exp. 19, 6541-6547 (2011).

S. Randhawa, M. U. Gonzalez, J. Renger, S. Enoch, R. Quidant, "Design and properties of dielectric surface plasmon bragg mirrors," Opt. Exp. 18, 14 496-14 510 (2010).

I. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, A. Boltasseva, "Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons," Opt. Exp. 17, 7228-7232 (2009).

C. Chen, P. Berini, "Grating couplers for broadside input and output coupling of long-range surface plasmons," Opt. Exp. 18, 8006-8018 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 75, (2007) Art. ID 245405.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Krasavin, P. Bolger, A. Zayats, "Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths," Phys. Rev. B 78, 1-8 (2008).

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, J. R. Sambles, "Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings," Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227-6244 (1996).

J. Renger, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, "Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surface thin films," Phys. Rev. B 76, (2007) Art. ID 045431.

I. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, A. Boltasseva, "Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges," Phys. Rev. B 78, (2008) Art. ID 115115.

Other (3)

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, 2003) pp. 160-162.

M. Nevière, E. Popov, Light Propagation in Periodic Media (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

D. Kalavrouziotis, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, S. Papaioannou, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, K. Hassan, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tolga, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, E. Kriezis, H. Avramopoulos, K. Vyrsokinos, N. Pleros, "10 Gb/s transmission and thermo-optic resonance tuning in silicon-plasmonic waveguide platform," Proc. ECOC (2011).

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