Abstract

This paper presents the use of equalization techniques in visible light communication (VLC) systems in order to increase the data rate. Here we investigate two VLC links a silicon (Si) light emitting diode (LED) and an organic photodetector (OPD), and an organic LED (OLED) plus an Si photodetector (PD), together with three equalization schemes of an RC high pass equalizer, a fractionally spaced zero-forcing equalizer (ZF) and an artificial neural network (ANN). In addition we utilize a pre-distortion scheme to enhance the performance of the digital equalizers. For both systems the bit rate achieved are 750 kb/s from a raw bandwidth (BW) of 30 kHz and 550 kb/s from a raw BW of 93 kHz.

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2010 (1)

K. Burse, R. N. Yadav, "Channel equalization using neural networks: A review," IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: App. and Reviews 40, 352-357 (2010).

2009 (5)

S. Rajbhandari, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Angelova, "Bit error performance of diffuse indoor optical wireless channel pulse position modulation system employing artificial neural networks for channel equalisation," IET Optoelectron. 3, 169-179 (2009).

S. F. Tedde, "Fully spray coated organic photodiodes," Nano Lett. 9, 980 (2009).

H. L. Minh, "100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1063-1065 (2009).

H. Kaushal, V. K. Jain, S. Ka, "Effect of atmospheric turbulence on acquisition time of ground to deep space optical communication system," Int. J. Electron. Comput. Eng. 4, 730-734 (2009).

S. Rajbhandari, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Angelova, "Effective denoising and adaptive equalization of indoor optical wireless channel with artificial light using the discrete wavelet transform and ANN," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4493-4500 (2009).

2008 (1)

Z. Ghassemlooy, "Investigation of the baseline wander effect on indoor optical wireless system employing digital pulse interval modulation," IET Commun. 2, 53-60 (2008).

2007 (1)

C. L. Mulder, "Saturated and efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with lambertian angular emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 211109.

2006 (1)

L. Behera, S. Kumar, A. Patnaik, "On adaptive learning rate that guarantees convergence in feedforward networks," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 17, 1116-1125 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Toledo, M. Pinzolas, "Improvement of the neighborhood based levenberg-marquardt algorithm by local adaptation of the learning coefficient," IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks 16, 988-992 (2005).

2001 (2)

A. Zerguine, A. Shafi, M. Bettayeb, "Multilayer perceptron-based DFE with lattice structure," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 12, 532-545 (2001).

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, J. C. Hummelen, "Plastic solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, (2001).

1997 (1)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).

1989 (1)

K. Hornik, M. Stinchcombe, H. White, "Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators," Neural Networks 2, 359-366 (1989).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, J. C. Hummelen, "Plastic solar cells," Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. L. Mulder, "Saturated and efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with lambertian angular emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 211109.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. Burton, "Improving data rates in organic light emitting diodes for visible light communications," IEEE Commun. Mag. .

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. L. Minh, "100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1063-1065 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Neural Networks (1)

L. Behera, S. Kumar, A. Patnaik, "On adaptive learning rate that guarantees convergence in feedforward networks," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 17, 1116-1125 (2006).

IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: App. and Reviews (1)

K. Burse, R. N. Yadav, "Channel equalization using neural networks: A review," IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: App. and Reviews 40, 352-357 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Neural Networks (1)

A. Zerguine, A. Shafi, M. Bettayeb, "Multilayer perceptron-based DFE with lattice structure," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 12, 532-545 (2001).

IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks (1)

A. Toledo, M. Pinzolas, "Improvement of the neighborhood based levenberg-marquardt algorithm by local adaptation of the learning coefficient," IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks 16, 988-992 (2005).

IET Optoelectron. (1)

S. Rajbhandari, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Angelova, "Bit error performance of diffuse indoor optical wireless channel pulse position modulation system employing artificial neural networks for channel equalisation," IET Optoelectron. 3, 169-179 (2009).

IET Commun. (1)

Z. Ghassemlooy, "Investigation of the baseline wander effect on indoor optical wireless system employing digital pulse interval modulation," IET Commun. 2, 53-60 (2008).

Int. J. Electron. Comput. Eng. (1)

H. Kaushal, V. K. Jain, S. Ka, "Effect of atmospheric turbulence on acquisition time of ground to deep space optical communication system," Int. J. Electron. Comput. Eng. 4, 730-734 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Rajbhandari, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Angelova, "Effective denoising and adaptive equalization of indoor optical wireless channel with artificial light using the discrete wavelet transform and ANN," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4493-4500 (2009).

Nano Lett. (1)

S. F. Tedde, "Fully spray coated organic photodiodes," Nano Lett. 9, 980 (2009).

Nat. Mat (1)

K. Asadi, "Organic non-volatile memories from ferroelectric phase-separated blends," Nat. Mat 7, 547-550 '08.

Neural Networks (1)

K. Hornik, M. Stinchcombe, H. White, "Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators," Neural Networks 2, 359-366 (1989).

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).

Other (18)

R. Shinar, J. Shinar, Organic Electronics in Sensors and Biotechnology (McGraw-Hill, 2009).

J. G. Proakis, M. Salehi, Fundamentals of Communication Systems (Pearson Prentice-Hall, 2005).

T. Fukuda, "Fast response blue and green organic light sources with different fluorescence lifetime materials for the wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnect application," Proc. 6th Intern. Conf. Polymers Adhesives in Microelectron. Photon. (2007) pp. 183-188.

Luxeon Rebel Datasheet Philips (2011).

D. Dilaura, K. Houser, R. Mistrick, G. Steffy, IES Lighting Handbook: Illuminating Engineering.

(06/01/12). AD8015 Datasheet.

L. Zeng, "Improvement of date rate using equalization in an indoor VLC system," Proc. 4th IEEE Int. Conf. Circuits Syst. for Commun. (2008) pp. 678-682.

J. Li, "High efficiency white organic light emitting device using a single emitter," Proc. Ren. Energy and Environ. Conf. (2011).

L. Ming-Shiang, "Influences of ITO anode thickness on OLED efficiencies," Proc. 23rd Annu. Meet. IEEE Photon. Soc. (2010) pp. 570-571.

N. Tessler, "Are organic LEDs and lasers similar to inorganic devices?," Proc. Eur. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. Int. Quantum Electron. Conf. (2007) pp. 1-1.

H. L. Minh, "Equalization for organic light emitting diodes in VLC," Proc. IEEE Globecom (2011).

T. Yamamura, "Flexible organic leds with parylene thin films for biological implants," Proc. MEMS. IEEE 20th Int. Conf. Micro Electro Mech. Syst. (2007) pp. 739-742.

T. Fiorido, "Inkjet printing of new photosensitive sensors based on organic thin films," Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Design Technol. Integr. Syst. Nanoscale Era (2008) pp. 1-4.

J. G. Proakis, M. Salehi, Contemporary Communication Systems Using MATLAB: (PWS , 1998).

Y. F. Liu, Y. C. Chang, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, "Equalization and pre-distorted schemes for increasing data rate in indoor visible light communication system," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2011) pp. 1-3.

M. Bahoura, P. Chan-Wang, "FPGA-implementation of high-speed MLP neural network," Proc. 18th IEEE Int. Conf. Electron., Circuits Syst. (2011) pp. 426-429.

S. Vitabile, V. Conti, F. Gennaro, F. Sorbello, "Efficient MLP digital implementation on FPGA," Proc. 8th Euromicro Conf. Digit. Syst. Design (2005) pp. 218-222.

S. Haykin, Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

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