Abstract

A prototypical design of AlGaN deep ultraviolet (DUV) laser diodes (LDs) on AlN substrates employing tapered electron blocking layer is presented. Two-dimensional optoelectronic simulation predicts lasing at a target wavelength of 250 nm. Degradation of optical gain associated with spatial separation of electron and hole wave functions inside the active region may be considerably reduced in designs featuring quaternary AlInGaN barriers, by virtue of polarization charge matching. A systematic method for selection of polarization-free quaternary barrier compositions is proposed for 250 nm DUV LD designs, accompanied by a sensitivity analysis. The selection procedure presented here is readily applied to LDs and light-emitting diodes operating at other wavelengths.

© 2012 IEEE

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2012 (2)

M. M. Satter, H.-J. Kim, Z. Lochner, J.-H. Ryou, S.-C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, P. D. Yoder, "Design and analysis of 250-nm AlInN laser diodes on AlN substrates using tapered electron blocking layers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 703-711 (2012).

J. Piprek, "Ultra-violet light-emitting diodes with quasi acceptor-free AlGaN polarization doping," Opt. Quantum Electron. 44, 67-73 (2012).

2011 (10)

S. H. Ha, S. L. Ban, J. Zhu, "Intersubband absorption in strained AlGaN/GaN double quantum wells," Physica B: Condens. Matter 406, 3640-3645 (2011).

E. Sakalauskas, B. Reuters, L. R. Khoshroo, H. Kalisch, M. Heuken, A. Vescan, M. Röppischer, C. Cobet, G. Gobsch, R. Goldhahn, "Dielectric function and optical properties of quaternary AlInGaN alloys," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 013102-1-013102-9 (2011).

P. J. Parbrook, T. Wang, "Light emitting and laser diodes in the ultraviolet," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1402-1411 (2011).

M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, "Lateral carrier confinement and threshold current reduction in InGaN QW lasers with deeply etched mesa," Opt. Quantum Electron. 42, 747-754 (2011).

P. H. Hart, S. Gorman, J. J. Finlay-Jones, "Modulation of the immune system by UV radiation: More than just the effects of vitamin D?," Nature Rev. Immunol. 11, 584-596 (2011).

J. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. Lochner, S.-S. Kim, H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, Q. Y. Wei, K. W. Sun, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Performance characteristics of InAlGaN laser diodes depending on electron blocking layer and waveguiding layer design grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Cryst. Growth 315, 272-277 (2011).

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, "Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083115-1-083115-5 (2011).

L. Liu, L. Wang, D. Li, N. Liu, L. Li, W. Cao, W. Yang, C. Wan, W. Chen, W. Du, X. Hu, Z. C. Feng, "Influence of indium composition in the prestrained InGaN interlayer on the strain relaxation of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells in laser diode structures," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073106-1-073106-5 (2011).

M. A. Caro, S. Schulz, S. B. Healy, E. P. O'Reilly, "Built-in field control in alloyed c-plane III-N quantum dots and wells," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084110-1-084110-10 (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Exp. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

2010 (10)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131114-1-131114-3 (2010).

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, "Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 114303-1-114303-6 (2010).

P.-Y. Dang, Y.-R. Wu, "Optical polarization anisotropy of tensile strained InGaN/AlInN quantum wells for TM mode lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 083108-1-083108-4 (2010).

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261103-1-261103-3 (2010).

W. C. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Y. Sun, "Study on preparation and properties of fluorescent offset printing ink," Adv. Mater. Res. 174, 393-396 (2010).

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, R. Gaska, "Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061102-1-061102-3 (2010).

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, N. Kamata, "Development of 230–270 nm AlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs," Electron. Commun. Jpn. 93, 24-33 (2010).

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, D. Jena, "Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures," Science 327, 60-64 (2010).

W. Lee, M.-H. Kim, D. Zhu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, "Growth and characteristics of GaInN/GaInN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063102-1-063102-6 (2010).

A. Venkatachalam, B. Klein, J. H. Ryou, S. C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, P. D. Yoder, "Design strategies for InGaN-based Green lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 238-245 (2010).

2009 (14)

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113-1-011113-3 (2009).

T. Mori, K. Nagamatsu, K. Nonaka, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, "Crystal growth and p-type conductivity control of AlGaN for high-efficiency nitride-based UV emitters," Phys. Status Solidi (c) 6, 2621-2625 (2009).

H. J. Chung, R. J. Choi, M. H. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. M. Park, Y. S. Kim, H. S. Paek, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, "Improved performance of GaN-based blue light emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multilayer barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 241109-1-241109-3 (2009).

E. Trybus, W. A. Doolittle, M. Moseley, W. Henderson, D. Billingsley, G. Namkoong, D. C. Look, "Extremely high hole concentrations in c-plane GaN," Phys. Status Solidi (c) 6, S788-S791 (2009).

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, S.-J. Park, "Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231123-1-231123-3 (2009).

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, A. V. Govorkov, E. A. Kozhukhova, A. M. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, A. M. Wowchak, I.-H. Lee, J.-W. Ju, S. J. Pearton, "Comparison of electrical properties and deep traps in p-AlxGa1-xN grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 073706-1-073706-6 (2009).

M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091903-1-091903-3 (2009).

Y.-K. Kuo, M.-C. Tsai, S.-H. Yen, "Numerical simulation of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer," Opt. Commun. 282, 4252-4255 (2009).

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, R. D. Dupuis, "Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1080-1091 (2009).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061104-1-061104-3 (2009).

Z. Yang, R. Li, Q. Wei, T. Yu, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, X. Hu, "Analysis of optical gain property in the InGaN/GaN triangular shaped quantum well under the piezoelectric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061120-1-061120-3 (2009).

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, "Optical anisotropy in [0001]-oriented AlxGa1-xN/AlN quantum wells (x > 0.69)," Phys. Rev. B 79, 121308-1-121308-4 (2009).

H.-H. Huang, Y.-R. Wu, "Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023106-1-023106-6 (2009).

A. A. Yamaguchi, "Theoretical investigation on polarization control of semipolar-oriented InGaN quantum-well emission using (Al)InGaN alloy substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201104-1-201104-3 (2009).

2008 (6)

A. Venkatachalam, P. D. Yoder, B. Klein, A. Kulkarni, "Nitride band-structure model in a quantum well laser simulator," Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 295-299 (2008).

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, H. Kan, "Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241106-1-241106-3 (2008).

U. Schwarz, "Ultraviolet laser diodes-indium-free success," Nature Photon. 2, 521-522 (2008).

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, "Delta-doping optimization for high quality p-type GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083512-1-083512-5 (2008).

A. Knauer, H. Wenzel, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, G. Tränkle, "Effect of the barrier composition on the polarization fields in near UV InGaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191912-1-191912-3 (2008).

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, Y. Park, "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102-1-041102-3 (2008).

2007 (3)

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507-1-183507-3 (2007).

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, N. Kamata, "231–261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901-1-071901-3 (2007).

M. Imura, N. Kato, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, A. Bandoh, "Mg-doped high-quality AlxGa1-xN (x = 0 - 1) grown by high-temperature metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy," Phys. Status Solidi (c) 4, 2502-2505 (2007).

2006 (4)

C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Zheng, Z.-J. Yang, J.-J. Dai, D.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chang, Z.-X. Lai, C. S. Hong, "High-efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121-1-083121-3 (2006).

J. Park, Y. Kawakami, "Photoluminescence property of InGaN single quantum well with embedded AlGaN $\delta$ layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 202107-1-202107-3 (2006).

G. Franssen, T. Suski, P. Perlin, R. Bohdan, A. Bercha, W. Trzeciakowski, I. Makarowa, R. Czernecki, M. Leszczy?ski, I. Grzegory, "Screening of polarization induced electric fields in blue/violet InGaN/GaN laser diodes by Si doping in quantum barriers revealed by hydrostatic pressure," Phys. Status Solidi (c) 3, 2303-2306 (2006).

G. E. Dialynas, G. Deligeorgis, M. Zervos, N. T. Pelekanos, "Influence of polarization field on the lasing properties of III-nitride quantum wells," Physica E 32, 558-561 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091107-1-091107-3 (2005).

2004 (2)

V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, "250 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2175-2177 (2004).

S.-N. Lee, J. Son, T. Sakong, W. Lee, H. Paek, E. Yoon, J. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, O. Nam, Y. Park, "Investigation of optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-InxGa1-xN, p-GaN and p-AlyGa1-yN grown by MOCVD," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 455-459 (2004).

2003 (2)

K. B. Nam, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Mg acceptor level in AlN probed by deep ultraviolet photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 878-880 (2003).

M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Enhanced p-type conduction in GaN and AlGaN by Mg-δ-doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3041-3043 (2003).

2002 (2)

Y. Kamii, I. Waki, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima, H. Miki, M. Okuyama, "Electrical characteristics of Mg-doped GaN activated with Ni catalysts," Appl. Surf. Sci. 190, 348-351 (2002).

S. Abe, S. Sato, E. Ito, M. Tsukuda, M. Tomiyama, E. Ohno, "Master recording for high-density disk using 248 nm laser beam recorder," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1704-1708 (2002).

2001 (1)

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, B. W. Wessels, "Electrical properties of p-type GaN:Mg codoped with oxygen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 222-224 (2001).

2000 (2)

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, W. C. Mitchel, "Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1832-1835 (2000).

K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, N. Kobayashi, "Activation energy and electrical activity of Mg in Mg-doped InxGa1-xN (x < 0.2)," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L337-L339 (2000).

Adv. Mater. Res. (1)

W. C. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Y. Sun, "Study on preparation and properties of fluorescent offset printing ink," Adv. Mater. Res. 174, 393-396 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (22)

M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091903-1-091903-3 (2009).

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, N. Kamata, "231–261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901-1-071901-3 (2007).

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, R. Gaska, "Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061102-1-061102-3 (2010).

V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, "250 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2175-2177 (2004).

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, H. Kan, "Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241106-1-241106-3 (2008).

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, S.-J. Park, "Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231123-1-231123-3 (2009).

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. Y. Lee, S. P. Chang, W. T. Chang, J. C. Li, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261103-1-261103-3 (2010).

C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Zheng, Z.-J. Yang, J.-J. Dai, D.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chang, Z.-X. Lai, C. S. Hong, "High-efficiency InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanoporous GaN:Mg structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083121-1-083121-3 (2006).

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091107-1-091107-3 (2005).

J. Park, Y. Kawakami, "Photoluminescence property of InGaN single quantum well with embedded AlGaN $\delta$ layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 202107-1-202107-3 (2006).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131114-1-131114-3 (2010).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061104-1-061104-3 (2009).

Z. Yang, R. Li, Q. Wei, T. Yu, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, X. Hu, "Analysis of optical gain property in the InGaN/GaN triangular shaped quantum well under the piezoelectric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061120-1-061120-3 (2009).

A. A. Yamaguchi, "Theoretical investigation on polarization control of semipolar-oriented InGaN quantum-well emission using (Al)InGaN alloy substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 201104-1-201104-3 (2009).

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113-1-011113-3 (2009).

A. Knauer, H. Wenzel, T. Kolbe, S. Einfeldt, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, G. Tränkle, "Effect of the barrier composition on the polarization fields in near UV InGaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191912-1-191912-3 (2008).

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, Y. Park, "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102-1-041102-3 (2008).

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, Y. Park, "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507-1-183507-3 (2007).

K. B. Nam, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Mg acceptor level in AlN probed by deep ultraviolet photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 878-880 (2003).

R. Y. Korotkov, J. M. Gregie, B. W. Wessels, "Electrical properties of p-type GaN:Mg codoped with oxygen," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 222-224 (2001).

M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Enhanced p-type conduction in GaN and AlGaN by Mg-δ-doping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3041-3043 (2003).

H. J. Chung, R. J. Choi, M. H. Kim, J. W. Han, Y. M. Park, Y. S. Kim, H. S. Paek, C. S. Sone, Y. J. Park, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, "Improved performance of GaN-based blue light emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN multilayer barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 241109-1-241109-3 (2009).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Y. Kamii, I. Waki, H. Fujioka, M. Oshima, H. Miki, M. Okuyama, "Electrical characteristics of Mg-doped GaN activated with Ni catalysts," Appl. Surf. Sci. 190, 348-351 (2002).

Electron. Commun. Jpn. (1)

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, N. Kamata, "Development of 230–270 nm AlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs," Electron. Commun. Jpn. 93, 24-33 (2010).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. M. Satter, H.-J. Kim, Z. Lochner, J.-H. Ryou, S.-C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, P. D. Yoder, "Design and analysis of 250-nm AlInN laser diodes on AlN substrates using tapered electron blocking layers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 703-711 (2012).

A. Venkatachalam, B. Klein, J. H. Ryou, S. C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, P. D. Yoder, "Design strategies for InGaN-based Green lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 238-245 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

P. J. Parbrook, T. Wang, "Light emitting and laser diodes in the ultraviolet," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 1402-1411 (2011).

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, R. D. Dupuis, "Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1080-1091 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (11)

A. Y. Polyakov, N. B. Smirnov, A. V. Govorkov, E. A. Kozhukhova, A. M. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, A. M. Wowchak, I.-H. Lee, J.-W. Ju, S. J. Pearton, "Comparison of electrical properties and deep traps in p-AlxGa1-xN grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 073706-1-073706-6 (2009).

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, "Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 114303-1-114303-6 (2010).

L. Liu, L. Wang, D. Li, N. Liu, L. Li, W. Cao, W. Yang, C. Wan, W. Chen, W. Du, X. Hu, Z. C. Feng, "Influence of indium composition in the prestrained InGaN interlayer on the strain relaxation of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells in laser diode structures," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073106-1-073106-5 (2011).

Y. Zhang, T.-T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-C. Shen, "Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083115-1-083115-5 (2011).

H.-H. Huang, Y.-R. Wu, "Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023106-1-023106-6 (2009).

P.-Y. Dang, Y.-R. Wu, "Optical polarization anisotropy of tensile strained InGaN/AlInN quantum wells for TM mode lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 083108-1-083108-4 (2010).

M. A. Caro, S. Schulz, S. B. Healy, E. P. O'Reilly, "Built-in field control in alloyed c-plane III-N quantum dots and wells," J. Appl. Phys. 109, 084110-1-084110-10 (2011).

W. Lee, M.-H. Kim, D. Zhu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, "Growth and characteristics of GaInN/GaInN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063102-1-063102-6 (2010).

P. Kozodoy, H. Xing, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, A. Saxler, R. Perrin, S. Elhamri, W. C. Mitchel, "Heavy doping effects in Mg-doped GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1832-1835 (2000).

C. Bayram, J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, "Delta-doping optimization for high quality p-type GaN," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083512-1-083512-5 (2008).

E. Sakalauskas, B. Reuters, L. R. Khoshroo, H. Kalisch, M. Heuken, A. Vescan, M. Röppischer, C. Cobet, G. Gobsch, R. Goldhahn, "Dielectric function and optical properties of quaternary AlInGaN alloys," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 013102-1-013102-9 (2011).

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

S.-N. Lee, J. Son, T. Sakong, W. Lee, H. Paek, E. Yoon, J. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, O. Nam, Y. Park, "Investigation of optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-InxGa1-xN, p-GaN and p-AlyGa1-yN grown by MOCVD," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 455-459 (2004).

J. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. Lochner, S.-S. Kim, H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, Q. Y. Wei, K. W. Sun, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, "Performance characteristics of InAlGaN laser diodes depending on electron blocking layer and waveguiding layer design grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Cryst. Growth 315, 272-277 (2011).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Abe, S. Sato, E. Ito, M. Tsukuda, M. Tomiyama, E. Ohno, "Master recording for high-density disk using 248 nm laser beam recorder," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1704-1708 (2002).

K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, N. Kobayashi, "Activation energy and electrical activity of Mg in Mg-doped InxGa1-xN (x < 0.2)," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L337-L339 (2000).

Nature Photon. (1)

U. Schwarz, "Ultraviolet laser diodes-indium-free success," Nature Photon. 2, 521-522 (2008).

Nature Rev. Immunol. (1)

P. H. Hart, S. Gorman, J. J. Finlay-Jones, "Modulation of the immune system by UV radiation: More than just the effects of vitamin D?," Nature Rev. Immunol. 11, 584-596 (2011).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y.-K. Kuo, M.-C. Tsai, S.-H. Yen, "Numerical simulation of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer," Opt. Commun. 282, 4252-4255 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Exp. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, "Lateral carrier confinement and threshold current reduction in InGaN QW lasers with deeply etched mesa," Opt. Quantum Electron. 42, 747-754 (2011).

J. Piprek, "Ultra-violet light-emitting diodes with quasi acceptor-free AlGaN polarization doping," Opt. Quantum Electron. 44, 67-73 (2012).

A. Venkatachalam, P. D. Yoder, B. Klein, A. Kulkarni, "Nitride band-structure model in a quantum well laser simulator," Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 295-299 (2008).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, "Optical anisotropy in [0001]-oriented AlxGa1-xN/AlN quantum wells (x > 0.69)," Phys. Rev. B 79, 121308-1-121308-4 (2009).

Phys. Status Solidi (c) (4)

G. Franssen, T. Suski, P. Perlin, R. Bohdan, A. Bercha, W. Trzeciakowski, I. Makarowa, R. Czernecki, M. Leszczy?ski, I. Grzegory, "Screening of polarization induced electric fields in blue/violet InGaN/GaN laser diodes by Si doping in quantum barriers revealed by hydrostatic pressure," Phys. Status Solidi (c) 3, 2303-2306 (2006).

M. Imura, N. Kato, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, A. Bandoh, "Mg-doped high-quality AlxGa1-xN (x = 0 - 1) grown by high-temperature metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy," Phys. Status Solidi (c) 4, 2502-2505 (2007).

T. Mori, K. Nagamatsu, K. Nonaka, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, "Crystal growth and p-type conductivity control of AlGaN for high-efficiency nitride-based UV emitters," Phys. Status Solidi (c) 6, 2621-2625 (2009).

E. Trybus, W. A. Doolittle, M. Moseley, W. Henderson, D. Billingsley, G. Namkoong, D. C. Look, "Extremely high hole concentrations in c-plane GaN," Phys. Status Solidi (c) 6, S788-S791 (2009).

Physica B: Condens. Matter (1)

S. H. Ha, S. L. Ban, J. Zhu, "Intersubband absorption in strained AlGaN/GaN double quantum wells," Physica B: Condens. Matter 406, 3640-3645 (2011).

Physica E (1)

G. E. Dialynas, G. Deligeorgis, M. Zervos, N. T. Pelekanos, "Influence of polarization field on the lasing properties of III-nitride quantum wells," Physica E 32, 558-561 (2006).

Science (1)

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, D. Jena, "Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures," Science 327, 60-64 (2010).

Other (8)

Z. W. J. Du, W. He, Y. Tang, "Numerical analysis of impact of imprinting pressure on profile shape and mold deformation in UV-NIL," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Nano/Micro Engineered Molecular Syst. (2011) pp. 792-795.

H. Ding, G. Chen, A. K. Majumdar, B. M. Sadler, Z. Xu, "Turbulence modeling for non-line-of-sight ultraviolet scattering channels," Proc. SPIE (2011) pp. 80380J-1-80380J-8.

J. Cabalo, M. DeLucia, A. Goad, J. Lacis, F. Narayanan, D. Sickenberger, "Overview of the TAC-BIO detector," Proc. SPIE 7116 pp. 71160D-1-71160D-11 (2008).

G. Knight, "Water and air treatment using ultraviolet light sources," Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. BaltimoreMD (2011).

S. Mogg, J. Piprek, "Optimization of the barrier height in 1.3 μm InGaAsP multiple-quantum-well active regions for high temperature operation," Proc. SPIE (2001) pp. 227-237.

W. A. Doolittle, M. Moseley, E. Trybus, "Deeply degenerate p-type GaN grown by metal modulated epitaxy," Int. Semicond. Device Res. Symp. College ParkMD (2009).

M. E. Levinshtein, S. L. Rumyantsev, M. Shur, Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials: GaN, AlN, InN, BN, SiC, SiGe (Wiley, 2001).

J. Piprek, Nitride Semiconductor Devices: Principles and Simulation (Wiley-VCH, 2007).

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