Abstract

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and double Rayleigh backscattering (DRBS) degrade the effective noise figure (ENF) and ultimately limit the performance of fiber Raman amplifiers (FRAs). This limitation is especially severe when a time-division-multiplexed (TDM) pumping scheme is employed. In this paper, we theoretically study the joint impact of ASE and DRBS on ENF in pulse-pumped FRAs. We demonstrate that the ASE is the major source of noise for small pump duty cycles, whereas DRBS dominates when a typical FRA operates in the continuous-wave regime. If the pump power is gradually increased, ENF improves until the gain reaches an optimal value. We show the increase of the optimal gain with pump duty cycle and with decreasing fiber scattering efficiency. Our study reveals the importance of taking into account the effects of both ASE and DRBS for an accurate estimation of ENF penalty in pulse-pumped FRAs, especially operating at high gains when pump duty cycle is small.

© 2012 IEEE

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  7. M. Karasek, "Large signal model of TDM-pumped Raman fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1848-1850 (2005).
  8. W. Jiang, J. Chen, J. Zhou, "Performance improvement of fiber Raman amplifiers using time-division-multiplexed pumping," Opt. Eng. 45, 95004-1โ€“5 (2006).
  9. M. Karasek, J. Vojtech, J. Radil, "Surviving channel power transients in TDM-pumped lumped Raman fiber amplifier," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009) pp. 3.
  10. C. Farrell, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, "Spectral gain control using shaped pump pulses in a counter-pumped cascaded fiber Raman amplifier," Opt. Exp. 18, 24126-24139 (2010).
  11. V. Kalavally, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, T. Win, "Analytical study of RIN transfer in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4536-4543 (2009).
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  16. C. R. S. Fludger, R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).
  17. A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).
  18. M. Premaratne, "Analytical characterization of optical power and noise figure of forward pumped Raman amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4235-4245 (2004).
  19. W. Zhang, J. Peng, X. Liu, C. Fan, "An analytical expression of equivalent noise figure for distributed fiber Raman amplifiers with Rayleigh scattering," Opt. Commun. 199, 231-236 (2001).
  20. P. Parolari, L. Marazzi, L. Bernardini, M. Martinelli, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2224-2228 (2003).
  21. S. Jiang, B. Bristiel, Y. Jaouen, P. Gallion, E. Pincemin, "Bit-error-rate evaluation of the distributed Raman amplified transmission systems in the presence of double Rayleigh backscattering noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 468-470 (2007).
  22. J. Zhou, J. Shifeng, P. Gallion, "A Fourier series approach to analyze pump modulation induced noise in Raman amplifiers with TDM pumps," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1879-1881 (2009).
  23. V. Kalavally, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, T. Win, "Multipath interference in pulse-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers: Analytical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2701-2707 (2010).
  24. J. Zhou, P. Gallion, "Analytical design, analysis, and optimization of Raman fiber amplifiers with TDM pumps," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1597-1604 (2010).
  25. V. Kalavally, A. K. Zamzuri, N. Kamrani, T. Win, M. Premaratne, I. D. Rukhlenko, "Experimental characterization of TDM-pumped distributed Raman amplifier with commercial laser diode controller," Proc. Int. Conf. Electron. Devices, Syst. Applications (2010) pp. 431-435.
  26. S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).
  27. H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, Y. C. Chung, "Simultaneous monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 8660-8666 (2007).
  28. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).
  29. D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "The properties of amplified spontaneous emission noise in saturated fiber Raman amplifiers operating with CW signals," Opt. Commun. 236, 279-288 (2004).
  30. C. H. Headley, G. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Academic, 2005).
  31. R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, 2003).
  32. H. Wei, Z. Tong, M. Wang, S. Jian, "Analysis of Raman amplifiers' transient effects and TDM-pumped Raman amplifiers using the finite-difference method," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 407-410 (2004).
  33. M. O. Van Deventer, "Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1895-1899 (1993).
  34. J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).

2010 (3)

C. Farrell, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, "Spectral gain control using shaped pump pulses in a counter-pumped cascaded fiber Raman amplifier," Opt. Exp. 18, 24126-24139 (2010).

V. Kalavally, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, T. Win, "Multipath interference in pulse-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers: Analytical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2701-2707 (2010).

J. Zhou, P. Gallion, "Analytical design, analysis, and optimization of Raman fiber amplifiers with TDM pumps," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1597-1604 (2010).

2009 (2)

J. Zhou, J. Shifeng, P. Gallion, "A Fourier series approach to analyze pump modulation induced noise in Raman amplifiers with TDM pumps," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1879-1881 (2009).

V. Kalavally, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, T. Win, "Analytical study of RIN transfer in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4536-4543 (2009).

2007 (2)

S. Jiang, B. Bristiel, Y. Jaouen, P. Gallion, E. Pincemin, "Bit-error-rate evaluation of the distributed Raman amplified transmission systems in the presence of double Rayleigh backscattering noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 468-470 (2007).

H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, Y. C. Chung, "Simultaneous monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 8660-8666 (2007).

2006 (1)

W. Jiang, J. Chen, J. Zhou, "Performance improvement of fiber Raman amplifiers using time-division-multiplexed pumping," Opt. Eng. 45, 95004-1โ€“5 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. Karasek, "Large signal model of TDM-pumped Raman fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1848-1850 (2005).

2004 (6)

P. J. Winzer, J. Bromage, R. T. Kane, P. A. Sammer, C. H. Headley, "Repetition rate requirements for time division multiplexed Raman pumping," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 401-408 (2004).

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1286-1288 (2004).

M. Premaratne, "Analytical characterization of optical power and noise figure of forward pumped Raman amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4235-4245 (2004).

D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "The properties of amplified spontaneous emission noise in saturated fiber Raman amplifiers operating with CW signals," Opt. Commun. 236, 279-288 (2004).

H. Wei, Z. Tong, M. Wang, S. Jian, "Analysis of Raman amplifiers' transient effects and TDM-pumped Raman amplifiers using the finite-difference method," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 407-410 (2004).

J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).

2003 (3)

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).

P. Parolari, L. Marazzi, L. Bernardini, M. Martinelli, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2224-2228 (2003).

J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Mermelstein, C. Horn, C. H. Headley, "Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 667-669 (2003).

2002 (2)

2001 (3)

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).

C. R. S. Fludger, R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).

W. Zhang, J. Peng, X. Liu, C. Fan, "An analytical expression of equivalent noise figure for distributed fiber Raman amplifiers with Rayleigh scattering," Opt. Commun. 199, 231-236 (2001).

2000 (1)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).

1998 (1)

P. P. B. Hansen, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159-161 (1998).

1993 (1)

M. O. Van Deventer, "Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1895-1899 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, "Characterization of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Zhou, P. Gallion, "Analytical design, analysis, and optimization of Raman fiber amplifiers with TDM pumps," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1597-1604 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Jiang, B. Bristiel, Y. Jaouen, P. Gallion, E. Pincemin, "Bit-error-rate evaluation of the distributed Raman amplified transmission systems in the presence of double Rayleigh backscattering noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 468-470 (2007).

P. P. B. Hansen, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159-161 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Karasek, "Large signal model of TDM-pumped Raman fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1848-1850 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Mermelstein, C. Horn, C. H. Headley, "Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 667-669 (2003).

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1286-1288 (2004).

J. Zhou, J. Shifeng, P. Gallion, "A Fourier series approach to analyze pump modulation induced noise in Raman amplifiers with TDM pumps," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1879-1881 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

P. Parolari, L. Marazzi, L. Bernardini, M. Martinelli, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2224-2228 (2003).

P. J. Winzer, J. Bromage, R. T. Kane, P. A. Sammer, C. H. Headley, "Repetition rate requirements for time division multiplexed Raman pumping," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 401-408 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

V. E. Perlin, "Optimal design of flat-gain wideband fiber Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 250-254 (2002).

V. Kalavally, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, T. Win, "Multipath interference in pulse-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers: Analytical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2701-2707 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).

M. O. Van Deventer, "Polarization properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1895-1899 (1993).

J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).

V. Kalavally, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, T. Win, "Analytical study of RIN transfer in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4536-4543 (2009).

C. R. S. Fludger, R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Wei, Z. Tong, M. Wang, S. Jian, "Analysis of Raman amplifiers' transient effects and TDM-pumped Raman amplifiers using the finite-difference method," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 407-410 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "The properties of amplified spontaneous emission noise in saturated fiber Raman amplifiers operating with CW signals," Opt. Commun. 236, 279-288 (2004).

W. Zhang, J. Peng, X. Liu, C. Fan, "An analytical expression of equivalent noise figure for distributed fiber Raman amplifiers with Rayleigh scattering," Opt. Commun. 199, 231-236 (2001).

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Jiang, J. Chen, J. Zhou, "Performance improvement of fiber Raman amplifiers using time-division-multiplexed pumping," Opt. Eng. 45, 95004-1โ€“5 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (3)

M. Premaratne, "Analytical characterization of optical power and noise figure of forward pumped Raman amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4235-4245 (2004).

C. Farrell, C. A. Codemard, J. Nilsson, "Spectral gain control using shaped pump pulses in a counter-pumped cascaded fiber Raman amplifier," Opt. Exp. 18, 24126-24139 (2010).

H. Y. Choi, S. B. Jun, S. K. Shin, Y. C. Chung, "Simultaneous monitoring technique for ASE and MPI noises in distributed Raman amplified systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 8660-8666 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (8)

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, N. Jolley, R. J. Mears, "Novel ultra-broadband high performance distributed Raman amplifier employing pump modulation," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2002) pp. 183-184.

M. A. Soto, R. Olivares, "Four wave mixing effects in gain-equalized distributed fiber Raman amplifiers," Proc. Microw. Optoelectron. Conf. (2007) pp. 41-45.

M. Karasek, J. Vojtech, J. Radil, "Surviving channel power transients in TDM-pumped lumped Raman fiber amplifier," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009) pp. 3.

R. E. Neuhauser, P. M. Krummrich, H. Bock, C. Glingener, "Impact of nonlinear pump interactions on broadband distributed Raman amplification," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2001) pp. 4.

A. R. Grant, L. F. Mollenauer, Time-Division-Multiplexing of Pump Wavelengths (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

V. Kalavally, A. K. Zamzuri, N. Kamrani, T. Win, M. Premaratne, I. D. Rukhlenko, "Experimental characterization of TDM-pumped distributed Raman amplifier with commercial laser diode controller," Proc. Int. Conf. Electron. Devices, Syst. Applications (2010) pp. 431-435.

C. H. Headley, G. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Academic, 2005).

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

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