Abstract

Among all proposed structures for optical networks, the optical packet switching (OPS) scheme, due to its practical implementation of IPs in an optical configuration and the consequent advantages, is a prizeworthy candidate for being employed in metropolitan area network and local area network communication levels. One of the few problems frequently met using the OPS structure in the fiber-optics realm is the lack of optical buffers, thus deteriorating the system's flexibility and quality of service. For example, optical label switching networks that have been developed recently based on the generalized multiprotocol label switching protocol, profoundly suffer from this setback which is considered as a great hurdle in their evolution. In this paper, we first introduce the input and output buffer switching models while deducing their blocking probability formulations. Then, by utilizing codes in the OPS structure, we closely examine the potential of code and/or wavelength switching in packet switching networks and also determine their blocking probability. Due to close similarities between different scenarios, we present the prospect of virtual optical buffers using codes, which have close performance to input and output buffers in sight of block probability. The most significant distinction in using virtual buffers is the fact that due to their substantial nature, they happen to exhibit some error probability. However, on account of the advantageous features of codes, the simulated and formulated error probability for both coherent and noncoherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA), such as Spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and optical orthogonal codes, using virtual buffers, tends to be negligible. Two main code and wavelength switching schemes are also brought to attention in this work, the intelligent and random methods. These scenarios demonstrate an even greater behavioral performance to that of the mere code switching scenario, leading into a more reliable adaptation of virtual buffers. In addition, simulations results happen to provide clear verifications to our analytical approach.

© 2012 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. K. H. Liu, IP Over WDM (Wiley, 2002).
  2. A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, "Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 144-151 (2001).
  3. S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).
  4. S. J. B. Yoo, "Energy efficiency in the future internet: The role of optical packet switching and optical-label switching," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 406-418 (2011).
  5. A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, "Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 144-150 (2001).
  6. Y. G. Wen, Y. Zhang, L. K. Chen, "On architecture and limitation of optical multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) networks using optical-orthogonal-code (OOC)/wavelength label," Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 43-70 (2002).
  7. K. I. Kitayama, M. Murata, "Versatile optical code-based MPLS for circuit, burst, and packet switchings," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2753-2764 (2003).
  8. G. Cincotti, W. Naoya, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers—Part I: Modeling and design," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).
  9. W. Naoya, G. Cincotti, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers—Part II: Experiments and applications," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 113-121 (2006).
  10. G. Cincotti, "Design of optical full encoders/decoders for code-based photonic routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1642-1650 (2004).
  11. G. Manzacca, A. M. Vegni, W. N. Xu Wang, G. Cincotti, K. I. Kitayama, "Performance analysis of a multiport encoder/decoder in OCDMA scenario," IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1415-1421 (2007).
  12. T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, "Differentiated contention resolution for QoS in photonic packet-switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol 22, 2523-2535 (2004).
  13. M. J. Karol, M. G. Hluchyj, S. P. Morgan, "Input versus output queueing on a space-division packet switch," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 1347-1356 (1987).
  14. M. G. Hluchyj, M. J. Karol, "Queueing in high-performance packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1587-1597 (1988).
  15. H. Beyranvand, J. A. Salehi, "Multi-service provisioning and quality of service (QoS) guarantee in WDM optical code switched GMPLS core network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1754-1762 (2009).
  16. D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightw. Technol 16, 2081-2094 (1998).
  17. T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, "Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 118-127 (2006).
  18. A. Papoulis, S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variable and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 2002).
  19. C. G. Cassandras, S. Lafortune, Introduction to Discrete Event Systems (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
  20. K. Kitayama, "Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1309-1319 (1998).
  21. J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).
  22. J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).
  23. F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, "Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and application," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).
  24. J. A. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part II: System performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834-842 (1989).
  25. S. Mashhadi, J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access technique in optical fiber networks, part III: Optical AND logic gate receiver structure with generalized optical orthogonal codes," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 1457-1468 (2006).
  26. W. Yubao, L. Baoxiang, "Optical code-labeled router based on OCDM," J. IEEE Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 111-116 (2010).
  27. H. Shaowei, K. Baba, M. Murata, K. Kitayama, "Variable-bandwidth optical paths: Comparison between optical code-labelled path and OCDM path," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3563-3573 (2006).
  28. S. L. Danielsen, P. B. Hansen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Wavelength conversion in optical packet switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2095-2108 (1998).
  29. B. Wen, K. Sivalingam, "Routing, wavelength and time-slot assignment algorithms for wavelength-routed optical WDM/TDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2598-2609 (2005).
  30. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

2011 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, "Energy efficiency in the future internet: The role of optical packet switching and optical-label switching," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 406-418 (2011).

2010 (1)

W. Yubao, L. Baoxiang, "Optical code-labeled router based on OCDM," J. IEEE Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 111-116 (2010).

2009 (1)

H. Beyranvand, J. A. Salehi, "Multi-service provisioning and quality of service (QoS) guarantee in WDM optical code switched GMPLS core network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1754-1762 (2009).

2007 (1)

G. Manzacca, A. M. Vegni, W. N. Xu Wang, G. Cincotti, K. I. Kitayama, "Performance analysis of a multiport encoder/decoder in OCDMA scenario," IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1415-1421 (2007).

2006 (6)

T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, "Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 118-127 (2006).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

G. Cincotti, W. Naoya, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers—Part I: Modeling and design," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).

W. Naoya, G. Cincotti, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers—Part II: Experiments and applications," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 113-121 (2006).

H. Shaowei, K. Baba, M. Murata, K. Kitayama, "Variable-bandwidth optical paths: Comparison between optical code-labelled path and OCDM path," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3563-3573 (2006).

S. Mashhadi, J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access technique in optical fiber networks, part III: Optical AND logic gate receiver structure with generalized optical orthogonal codes," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 1457-1468 (2006).

2005 (1)

B. Wen, K. Sivalingam, "Routing, wavelength and time-slot assignment algorithms for wavelength-routed optical WDM/TDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2598-2609 (2005).

2004 (2)

G. Cincotti, "Design of optical full encoders/decoders for code-based photonic routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1642-1650 (2004).

T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, "Differentiated contention resolution for QoS in photonic packet-switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol 22, 2523-2535 (2004).

2003 (1)

K. I. Kitayama, M. Murata, "Versatile optical code-based MPLS for circuit, burst, and packet switchings," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2753-2764 (2003).

2002 (1)

Y. G. Wen, Y. Zhang, L. K. Chen, "On architecture and limitation of optical multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) networks using optical-orthogonal-code (OOC)/wavelength label," Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 43-70 (2002).

2001 (2)

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, "Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 144-151 (2001).

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, "Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 144-150 (2001).

2000 (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

1998 (3)

S. L. Danielsen, P. B. Hansen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Wavelength conversion in optical packet switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2095-2108 (1998).

D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightw. Technol 16, 2081-2094 (1998).

K. Kitayama, "Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1309-1319 (1998).

1990 (1)

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).

1989 (3)

J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, "Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and application," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).

J. A. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part II: System performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834-842 (1989).

1988 (1)

M. G. Hluchyj, M. J. Karol, "Queueing in high-performance packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1587-1597 (1988).

1987 (1)

M. J. Karol, M. G. Hluchyj, S. P. Morgan, "Input versus output queueing on a space-division packet switch," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 1347-1356 (1987).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, "Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of routing and management enhancements," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 144-150 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

K. Kitayama, "Code division multiplexing lightwave networks based upon optical code conversion," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1309-1319 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

S. Mashhadi, J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access technique in optical fiber networks, part III: Optical AND logic gate receiver structure with generalized optical orthogonal codes," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 1457-1468 (2006).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. Banerjee, J. Drake, J. P. Lang, B. Turner, "Generalized multiprotocol label switching: An overview of signaling enhancements and recovery techniques," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 144-151 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, "Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 118-127 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

M. G. Hluchyj, M. J. Karol, "Queueing in high-performance packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1587-1597 (1988).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, "Energy efficiency in the future internet: The role of optical packet switching and optical-label switching," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 406-418 (2011).

IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Manzacca, A. M. Vegni, W. N. Xu Wang, G. Cincotti, K. I. Kitayama, "Performance analysis of a multiport encoder/decoder in OCDMA scenario," IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1415-1421 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

M. J. Karol, M. G. Hluchyj, S. P. Morgan, "Input versus output queueing on a space-division packet switch," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-35, 1347-1356 (1987).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

J. A. Salehi, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824-833 (1989).

J. A. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, "Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part II: System performance analysis," IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834-842 (1989).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, "Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and application," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).

J. Lightw. Technol (1)

T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. P. Jue, "Differentiated contention resolution for QoS in photonic packet-switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol 22, 2523-2535 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

K. I. Kitayama, M. Murata, "Versatile optical code-based MPLS for circuit, burst, and packet switchings," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2753-2764 (2003).

J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990).

H. Shaowei, K. Baba, M. Murata, K. Kitayama, "Variable-bandwidth optical paths: Comparison between optical code-labelled path and OCDM path," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3563-3573 (2006).

J. IEEE Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

W. Yubao, L. Baoxiang, "Optical code-labeled router based on OCDM," J. IEEE Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 111-116 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol (1)

W. Naoya, G. Cincotti, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers—Part II: Experiments and applications," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 113-121 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

G. Cincotti, "Design of optical full encoders/decoders for code-based photonic routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1642-1650 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol (1)

D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightw. Technol 16, 2081-2094 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

H. Beyranvand, J. A. Salehi, "Multi-service provisioning and quality of service (QoS) guarantee in WDM optical code switched GMPLS core network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1754-1762 (2009).

G. Cincotti, W. Naoya, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers—Part I: Modeling and design," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).

S. L. Danielsen, P. B. Hansen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Wavelength conversion in optical packet switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2095-2108 (1998).

B. Wen, K. Sivalingam, "Routing, wavelength and time-slot assignment algorithms for wavelength-routed optical WDM/TDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2598-2609 (2005).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Y. G. Wen, Y. Zhang, L. K. Chen, "On architecture and limitation of optical multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) networks using optical-orthogonal-code (OOC)/wavelength label," Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 43-70 (2002).

Opt. Netw. Mag. (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

Other (3)

A. Papoulis, S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variable and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

C. G. Cassandras, S. Lafortune, Introduction to Discrete Event Systems (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

K. H. Liu, IP Over WDM (Wiley, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.