Abstract

An optical data transfer system has been designed by analyzing an equivalent-circuit model for a silicon photonic chip to determine how to enhance the system gain and suppress intersymbol interference (ISI). This robust system uses three-valued logic (3VL), which is achieved by using a 1-bit delay in the Tx portion and a set–reset (SR) latch in the Rx portion. Use of the 3VL protocol results in less ISI than use of the conventional two-valued one at high bit rates. The system is also robust against internal ac coupling.

© 2012 IEEE

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2012 (1)

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, T. Usuki, "12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V· cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward- biased pin diode," Opt. Exp. 20, 2911-2923 (2012).

2011 (3)

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate," Opt. Exp. 19, B159-B165 (2011).

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver," Opt. Exp. 19, 5172-5186 (2011).

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, T. Baba, "10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators," Opt. Exp. 19, 13000-13007 (2011).

2010 (4)

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, T. Yamamoto, "A 1 V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Exp. 3, 072202-1-072202-3 (2010).

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector," Opt. Exp. 18, 4986-4999 (2010).

J. Michel, J. F. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, "High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors," Nature Photon. 4, 527-534 (2010).

N. Nedovic, A. Kristensson, S. Parikh, S. Reddy, S. McLeod, N. Tzartzanis, K. Kanda, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsubara, M. Kibune, Y. Doi, S. Ide, Y. Tsunoda, T. Yamabana, T. Shibasaki, Y. Tomita, T. Hamada, M. Sugawara, T. Ikeuchi, N. Kuwata, H. Tamura, J. Ogawa, W. Walker, "A 3 Watt 39.8–44.6 Gb/s dual-mode SFI5.2 SerDes chip set in 65 nm CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 2016-2029 (2010).

2009 (5)

D. A. B. Miller, "Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166-1185 (2009).

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator," Opt. Exp. 17, 22484-22490 (2009).

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. Fédéi, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, S. Laval, "42 GHz p.i.n germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Opt. Exp. 17, 6252-6257 (2009).

L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon," Opt. Exp. 17, 7901-7906 (2009).

Y. Hidaka, W. Gai, T. Horie, J. H. Jiang, Y. Koyanagi, H. Osone, "A 4-channel 1.25–10.3 Gb/s backplane transceiver macro with 35 dB equalizer and sign-based zero-forcing adaptive control," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 3547-3559 (2009).

2007 (3)

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 15, 17106-17113 (2007).

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).

2006 (1)

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589-6602 (2006).

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

2004 (1)

S. M. Park, J. Lee, H. Yoo, "1-Gb/s 80-dB$\Omega$ fully differential CMOS transimpedance amplifier in multichip on oxide technology for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 971-974 (2004).

2003 (1)

G. Dambrine, D. Gloria, P. Scheer, C. Raynaud, F. Danneville, "What are the limiting parameters of deep-submicron MOSFETs for high frequency applications?," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24, 189-191 (2003).

1991 (1)

R. G. Walker, "High-speed III-V semiconductor intensity modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 654-667 (1991).

1987 (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

Appl. Phys. Exp. (1)

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, T. Yamamoto, "A 1 V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Exp. 3, 072202-1-072202-3 (2010).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

G. Dambrine, D. Gloria, P. Scheer, C. Raynaud, F. Danneville, "What are the limiting parameters of deep-submicron MOSFETs for high frequency applications?," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 24, 189-191 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. G. Walker, "High-speed III-V semiconductor intensity modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 654-667 (1991).

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (3)

N. Nedovic, A. Kristensson, S. Parikh, S. Reddy, S. McLeod, N. Tzartzanis, K. Kanda, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsubara, M. Kibune, Y. Doi, S. Ide, Y. Tsunoda, T. Yamabana, T. Shibasaki, Y. Tomita, T. Hamada, M. Sugawara, T. Ikeuchi, N. Kuwata, H. Tamura, J. Ogawa, W. Walker, "A 3 Watt 39.8–44.6 Gb/s dual-mode SFI5.2 SerDes chip set in 65 nm CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45, 2016-2029 (2010).

Y. Hidaka, W. Gai, T. Horie, J. H. Jiang, Y. Koyanagi, H. Osone, "A 4-channel 1.25–10.3 Gb/s backplane transceiver macro with 35 dB equalizer and sign-based zero-forcing adaptive control," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 44, 3547-3559 (2009).

S. M. Park, J. Lee, H. Yoo, "1-Gb/s 80-dB$\Omega$ fully differential CMOS transimpedance amplifier in multichip on oxide technology for optical interconnects," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39, 971-974 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6589-6602 (2006).

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

Nature Photon. (1)

J. Michel, J. F. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, "High performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors," Nature Photon. 4, 527-534 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (11)

X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. F. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "Ultra-efficient 10 Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver," Opt. Exp. 19, 5172-5186 (2011).

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, T. Baba, "10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators," Opt. Exp. 19, 13000-13007 (2011).

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. Fédéi, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, S. Laval, "42 GHz p.i.n germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Opt. Exp. 17, 6252-6257 (2009).

L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon," Opt. Exp. 17, 7901-7906 (2009).

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector," Opt. Exp. 18, 4986-4999 (2010).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 15, 17106-17113 (2007).

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, T. Usuki, "12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V· cm VπL using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward- biased pin diode," Opt. Exp. 20, 2911-2923 (2012).

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, Y. Arakawa, "First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators and photodetectors on single silicon substrate," Opt. Exp. 19, B159-B165 (2011).

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator," Opt. Exp. 17, 22484-22490 (2009).

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, "Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166-1185 (2009).

Other (17)

S. Assefa, W. M. J. Green, A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, F. Horst, Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS integrated nanophotonics—Enabling technology for exascale computing systems," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OMM6.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 612502-1-612502-10.

Y. Hidaka, T. Horie, Y. Koyanagi, T. Miyoshi, H. Osone, S. Parikh, S. Reddy, T. Shibuya, Y. Umezawa, W. W. Walker, "A 4-channel 10.3 Gb/s transceiver with adaptive phase equalizer for 4-to-41dB loss PCB channel," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers (2011) pp. 346-348.

K. Yamaguchi, K. Sunaga, S. Kaeriyama, T. Nedachi, M. Takamiya, K. Nose, Y. Nakagawa, M. Sugawara, M. Fukaishi, "12 Gb/s duobinary signaling with x2 oversampled edge equalization," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers (2005) pp. 70-71.

T. D. Ridder, X. Yin, P. Ossieur, X. Qiu, J. Vandewege, O. Chasles, A. Devos, P. D. Pauw, "Monolithic transimpedance amplifier design for large photodiode capacitance and wide temperature range," Proc. Symp. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (2005) pp. 245-248.

F. Tavernier, M. Steyaert, "A 5.5 Gbit/s optical receiver in 130 nm CMOS with speed-enhanced integrated photodiode," Proc. ESSCIRC (2010) pp. 542-545.

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