Abstract

A physical micromachining technique is demonstrated in a low-loss flat-fiber substrate to fabricate a multimode interference (MMI) device. The flat-fiber substrate is a low-index-contrast material; however, by making use of two physically micromachined trenches, lateral confinement is achieved providing high index contrast for the MMI region. A 1 x 3 MMI device exhibiting 1.89 dB of excess loss has been demonstrated.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Penning, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and application," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
  2. M. Mayeh, J. Viegas, P. Srinivasan, P. Marques, J. L. Santos, E. G. Johnson, F. Farahi, "Design and fabrication of slotted multimode interference devices for chemical and biological sensing," J. Sensor 470175-1-470175-11 (2009).
  3. Z. Jin, C. J. Kaalund, G. Peng, "Novel approach to design high performance large-port-count switches in low-index-contrast materials based on cascaded multimode interference couplers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1548-1551 (2005).
  4. C. Holmes, H. E. Major, J. C. Gates, C. B. E. Gawith, P. G. R. Smith, "Period adapted Bragg mirror multimode interference device," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf. (2009) pp. 1-2.
  5. M. H. Ibrahim, N. M. Kassim, A. B. Mohammad, M. K. Chin, S. Y. Lee, "Multimode interference optical splitter based on photodefinable benzocyclobutene (BCB 4024-40) polymer," Opt. Eng. 46, 013401-1-013401-4 (2007).
  6. H. Chen, D. T. K. Tong, "Two-dimensional symmetric multimode interferences in silicon square waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 801-803 (2005).
  7. A. S. Webb, F. R. M. Adikan, J. K. Sahu, R. J. Standish, C. B. E. Gawith, J. C. Gates, P. G. R. Smith, D. N. Payne, "MCVD planar substrates for UV-written waveguide devices," Electron. Lett. 43, 517-519 (2007).
  8. F. R. M. Adikan, S. Sandoghchi, W. Chong, R. Simpson, M. Mahdi, A. Webb, J. Gates, C. Holmes, "Direct UV written optical waveguides in flexible glass flat fibre chips," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. .
  9. X. Wang, R. T. Chen, "Image enhanced polymer-based multimode interference coupler covering C and L bands using deeply etched air trenches," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111106-1-111106-3 (2007).
  10. J. Z. Huang, M. H. Hu, J. Fujita, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, "High-performance metal-clad multimode interference devices for low-index-contrast material systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 561-563 (1998).
  11. C. J. Kaalund, Z. Jin, "Novel multimode interference devices for low index contrast materials systems featuring deeply etched air trenches," Opt. Commun. 250, 292-296 (2005).
  12. M. K. Chin, C. W. Lee, S. Y. Lee, S. Darmawan, "High-index-contrast waveguides and devices," Appl. Opt. 44, 3077-3086 (2005).
  13. Y. Ma, S. P. L. Wang, S. T. Ho, "Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 492-494 (2000).
  14. L. G. Carpenter, C. Holmes, H. L. Rogers, P. G. R. Smith, J. C. Gates, "Integrated optic glass microcantilevers with Bragg grating interrogation," Opt. Exp. 18, 23296-23301 (2010).
  15. K. Okamoto, Multimode Interference (MMI) Device (Academic, 2006) pp. 46-55.
  16. A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, R. T. Chen, "Optimum access waveguide width for 1 x N multimode interference couplers on silicon nanomembrane," Opt. Lett. 35, 2864-2866 (2010).
  17. M. Zhang, R. Malureanu, A. C. Kruger, M. Kristensen, "1 x 3 beam splitter for TE polarization based on self-imaging phenomena in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 14944-14949 (2010).
  18. H. L. Rogers, S. Ambran, C. Holmes, P. G. R. Smith, J. C. Gates, "In situ loss measurement of direct UV written waveguides using integrated Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 35, 2849-2851 (2010).
  19. M. Bruendel, D. G. Rabus, "1 x 2 and 1 x 3 multimode interference couplers fabricated by hot embossing and DUV-induced modification of polymers," Proc. 19th Annu. Meet. IEEE Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. (2006) pp. 326-327.
  20. P. A. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, "New 2 x 2 and 1 x 3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2286-2293 (1996).
  21. J. M. Hong, H. H. Ryu, S. Y. Park, J. W. Jeong, S. G. Lee, E.-H. Lee, S.-G. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, "Design and fabrication of a significantly shortened multimode interference coupler for polarization splitter application," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72-74 (2003).

2010

L. G. Carpenter, C. Holmes, H. L. Rogers, P. G. R. Smith, J. C. Gates, "Integrated optic glass microcantilevers with Bragg grating interrogation," Opt. Exp. 18, 23296-23301 (2010).

M. Zhang, R. Malureanu, A. C. Kruger, M. Kristensen, "1 x 3 beam splitter for TE polarization based on self-imaging phenomena in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 14944-14949 (2010).

H. L. Rogers, S. Ambran, C. Holmes, P. G. R. Smith, J. C. Gates, "In situ loss measurement of direct UV written waveguides using integrated Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 35, 2849-2851 (2010).

A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, R. T. Chen, "Optimum access waveguide width for 1 x N multimode interference couplers on silicon nanomembrane," Opt. Lett. 35, 2864-2866 (2010).

2009

M. Mayeh, J. Viegas, P. Srinivasan, P. Marques, J. L. Santos, E. G. Johnson, F. Farahi, "Design and fabrication of slotted multimode interference devices for chemical and biological sensing," J. Sensor 470175-1-470175-11 (2009).

2007

M. H. Ibrahim, N. M. Kassim, A. B. Mohammad, M. K. Chin, S. Y. Lee, "Multimode interference optical splitter based on photodefinable benzocyclobutene (BCB 4024-40) polymer," Opt. Eng. 46, 013401-1-013401-4 (2007).

A. S. Webb, F. R. M. Adikan, J. K. Sahu, R. J. Standish, C. B. E. Gawith, J. C. Gates, P. G. R. Smith, D. N. Payne, "MCVD planar substrates for UV-written waveguide devices," Electron. Lett. 43, 517-519 (2007).

X. Wang, R. T. Chen, "Image enhanced polymer-based multimode interference coupler covering C and L bands using deeply etched air trenches," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111106-1-111106-3 (2007).

2005

C. J. Kaalund, Z. Jin, "Novel multimode interference devices for low index contrast materials systems featuring deeply etched air trenches," Opt. Commun. 250, 292-296 (2005).

H. Chen, D. T. K. Tong, "Two-dimensional symmetric multimode interferences in silicon square waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 801-803 (2005).

Z. Jin, C. J. Kaalund, G. Peng, "Novel approach to design high performance large-port-count switches in low-index-contrast materials based on cascaded multimode interference couplers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1548-1551 (2005).

M. K. Chin, C. W. Lee, S. Y. Lee, S. Darmawan, "High-index-contrast waveguides and devices," Appl. Opt. 44, 3077-3086 (2005).

2003

J. M. Hong, H. H. Ryu, S. Y. Park, J. W. Jeong, S. G. Lee, E.-H. Lee, S.-G. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, "Design and fabrication of a significantly shortened multimode interference coupler for polarization splitter application," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72-74 (2003).

2000

Y. Ma, S. P. L. Wang, S. T. Ho, "Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 492-494 (2000).

1998

J. Z. Huang, M. H. Hu, J. Fujita, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, "High-performance metal-clad multimode interference devices for low-index-contrast material systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 561-563 (1998).

1996

P. A. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, "New 2 x 2 and 1 x 3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2286-2293 (1996).

1995

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Penning, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and application," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Wang, R. T. Chen, "Image enhanced polymer-based multimode interference coupler covering C and L bands using deeply etched air trenches," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111106-1-111106-3 (2007).

Electron. Lett.

A. S. Webb, F. R. M. Adikan, J. K. Sahu, R. J. Standish, C. B. E. Gawith, J. C. Gates, P. G. R. Smith, D. N. Payne, "MCVD planar substrates for UV-written waveguide devices," Electron. Lett. 43, 517-519 (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Z. Jin, C. J. Kaalund, G. Peng, "Novel approach to design high performance large-port-count switches in low-index-contrast materials based on cascaded multimode interference couplers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1548-1551 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

F. R. M. Adikan, S. Sandoghchi, W. Chong, R. Simpson, M. Mahdi, A. Webb, J. Gates, C. Holmes, "Direct UV written optical waveguides in flexible glass flat fibre chips," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. .

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Chen, D. T. K. Tong, "Two-dimensional symmetric multimode interferences in silicon square waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 801-803 (2005).

J. Z. Huang, M. H. Hu, J. Fujita, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, "High-performance metal-clad multimode interference devices for low-index-contrast material systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 561-563 (1998).

Y. Ma, S. P. L. Wang, S. T. Ho, "Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 492-494 (2000).

J. M. Hong, H. H. Ryu, S. Y. Park, J. W. Jeong, S. G. Lee, E.-H. Lee, S.-G. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, O. Beom-Hoan, "Design and fabrication of a significantly shortened multimode interference coupler for polarization splitter application," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72-74 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol.

P. A. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, "New 2 x 2 and 1 x 3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2286-2293 (1996).

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Penning, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and application," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

J. Sensor

M. Mayeh, J. Viegas, P. Srinivasan, P. Marques, J. L. Santos, E. G. Johnson, F. Farahi, "Design and fabrication of slotted multimode interference devices for chemical and biological sensing," J. Sensor 470175-1-470175-11 (2009).

Opt. Commun.

C. J. Kaalund, Z. Jin, "Novel multimode interference devices for low index contrast materials systems featuring deeply etched air trenches," Opt. Commun. 250, 292-296 (2005).

Opt. Eng.

M. H. Ibrahim, N. M. Kassim, A. B. Mohammad, M. K. Chin, S. Y. Lee, "Multimode interference optical splitter based on photodefinable benzocyclobutene (BCB 4024-40) polymer," Opt. Eng. 46, 013401-1-013401-4 (2007).

Opt. Exp.

L. G. Carpenter, C. Holmes, H. L. Rogers, P. G. R. Smith, J. C. Gates, "Integrated optic glass microcantilevers with Bragg grating interrogation," Opt. Exp. 18, 23296-23301 (2010).

M. Zhang, R. Malureanu, A. C. Kruger, M. Kristensen, "1 x 3 beam splitter for TE polarization based on self-imaging phenomena in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 14944-14949 (2010).

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. Bruendel, D. G. Rabus, "1 x 2 and 1 x 3 multimode interference couplers fabricated by hot embossing and DUV-induced modification of polymers," Proc. 19th Annu. Meet. IEEE Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. (2006) pp. 326-327.

K. Okamoto, Multimode Interference (MMI) Device (Academic, 2006) pp. 46-55.

C. Holmes, H. E. Major, J. C. Gates, C. B. E. Gawith, P. G. R. Smith, "Period adapted Bragg mirror multimode interference device," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf. (2009) pp. 1-2.

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