Abstract

In this theoretical study we investigate the efficiency potential of monolithic white light emitting diodes (LEDs) that are free of wavelength-converting phosphors and are based solely on the InGaN material system. For that purpose we develop a numerical model that handles multiple active layers of different emission wavelength and takes photon reabsorption and -emission as well as internal non-radiative and optical losses into account. It is applied both to thin film structures as well as novel nanorod LEDs featuring disc-like active layers. In both cases, the active layers may either consist of multiple thin quantum wells or a single thick, bulk-like InGaN layer.

© 2012 IEEE

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2012 (2)

F. Römer, M. Deppner, Z. Andreev, C. Kölper, M. Sabathil, M. Strassburg, J. Ledig, S. Li, A. Waag, B. Witzigmann, "Luminescence and efficiency optimization of InGaN/GaN core-shell nanowire LEDs by numerical modelling," Proc. SPIE 8255, 82550H (2012).

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2011 (9)

A. Neumann, J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. Brueck, J. Tsao, "Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality," Opt. Exp. 19, A982-A990 (2011).

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. ID 161107.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, A. Waag, "N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties," J. Cryst. Growth 315, 164-167 (2011).

W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, B. S. Ooi, "InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. ID 193102.

C. Sun, T. Lee, Y. Lo, C. Chen, S. Tsai, "Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling," Opt. Commun. 284, 4862-4868 (2011).

A. Strittmatter, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, M. V. Kisin, P. Spiberg, H. El-Ghoroury, A. Usikov, A. Syrkin, "Semi-polar nitride surfaces and heterostructures," Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 561-573 (2011).

W. Lundin, "Single quantum well deep-green LEDs with buried InGaN/GaN short-period superlattice," J. Cryst. Growth 315, 267-271 (2011).

P. Stauss, M. Mandl, P. Rode, A. Laubsch, A. Biebersdorf, R. Windisch, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, U. Steegmüller, "Monolitically grown dual wavelength InGaN LEDs for improved CRI," Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 2396-2398 (2011).

B. Galler, M. Sabathil, A. Laubsch, T. Meyer, L. Hoeppel, G. Kraeuter, H. Lugauer, M. Strassburg, M. Peter, A. Biebersdorf, U. Steegmueller, B. Hahn, "Green high-power light sources using InGaN multi-quantum-well structures for full conversion," Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 2369-2371 (2011).

2010 (16)

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, K. Streubel, "Licht aus Kristallen," Physik J. 9, 23-28 (2010).

B. Damilano, P. Demolon, J. Brault, T. Huault, F. Natali, J. Massies, "Blue-green and white color tuning of monolithic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 108, (2010) Art. ID 073115.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, T. Mukai, "White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 354002 (2010).

B. Hahn, K. Engl, M. Klein, "Submerged electrodes boost high-brightness LED output," Compound Semicond. 15, 25 (2010).

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C. Pan, R. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar (20–21) GaN substrates," Appl. Phys. Exp. 3, (2010) Art. ID 122102.

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. Sun, F. A. Ponce, "Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 101102.

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, "Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 231101.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, "Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching," J. Appl. Phys. 107, (2010) Art. ID 023522.

C. Böcklin, R. Veprek, S. Steiger, B. Witzigmann, "Computational study of an InGaN/GaN nanocolumn light-emitting diode," Phys. Rev. B 81, (2010) Art. ID 155306.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, "Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 231104.

H.-W. Lin, Y.-J. Lu, H.-Y. Chen, H.-M. Lee, S. Gwo, "InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. ID 073101.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, A. Waag, "Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells," Nanotechnol. 21, 305201 (2010).

R. Colby, Z. Liang, I. Wildeson, D. Ewoldt, T. Sands, R. Garcia, E. Stach, "Dislocation filtering in GaN nanostructures," Nano Lett. 10, 1568-1573 (2010).

J. Tsao, M. Coltrin, M. Crawford, J. Simmons, "Solid-state lighting: An integrated human factors, technology, and economic perspective," Proc. IEEE 98, 1162-1179 (2010).

J. Piprek, "Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes," Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 2217-2225 (2010).

A. David, N. F. Gardner, "Droop in III-nitrides: Comparison of bulk and injection contributions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. ID 193508.

2009 (6)

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, "On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs," Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S913-S916 (2009).

A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, M. Sabathil, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, T. Meyer, G. Brüderl, J. Wagner, N. Linder, K. Streubel, B. Hahn, "Luminescence properties of thick InGaN quantum-wells," Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S885-S888 (2009).

B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells: Microscopic theory," Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S864-S868 (2009).

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, B. Hahn, "New developments in green LEDs," Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 1125-1129 (2009).

A. Setlur, "Phosphors for LED-based solid-state lighting," Electrochem. Soc. Interface 33 (2009).

J. Baur, F. Baumann, M. Peter, K. Engl, U. Zehnder, J. Off, V. Kuemmler, M. Kirsch, J. Strauss, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, B. Hahn, "Status of high efficiency and high power ThinGaN-LED development," Phys. Status Solidi C 6, 905-908 (2009).

2008 (6)

S. Allen, A. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).

I. Park, J. Kim, M. Kwon, C. Cho, J. Lim, S. Park, "Phosphor-free white light-emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. ID 091110.

S. Lee, H. Paek, H. Kim, T. Jang, Y. Park, "Monolithic InGaN-based white light-emitting diodes with blue, green, and amber emissions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. ID 081107.

M. Peter, "Osram explores the route to high-performance greens," Compound Semicond. 14, 16-18 (2008).

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, P. Stauss, A. Walter, J. Baur, B. Hahn, "Green ThinGaN power-LED demonstrates 100 lm," Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 2050-2052 (2008).

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. ID 261103.

2007 (6)

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, "Polarization of light emission by 460 nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 051117.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, "Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 141101.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, H. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined stark effect with blueshift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).

J. Phillips, "Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting," Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 307-333 (2007).

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

C. Huang, C. Lu, T. Tang, J. Huang, C. Yang, "Phosphor-free white-light light-emitting diode of weakly carrier-density-dependent spectrum with prestrained growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 151122.

2006 (1)

S. Hersee, X. Sun, X. Wang, "The controlled growth of GaN nanowires," Nano Lett. 6, 1808-1811 (2006).

2004 (5)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, A. Scherer, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nature Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).

D. P. Fussell, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijn de Sterke, "Three-dimensional Green's tensor, local density of states, and spontaneous emission in finite two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of cylinders," Phys. Rev. E 70, (2004) Art. ID 066608.

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, D. Eisert, "High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaN-technology," Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736-2739 (2004).

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, K. Kishino, "InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1524 (2004).

H. Kim, Y. Cho, H. Lee, S. Kim, S. Ryu, D. Kim, T. Kang, K. Chung, "High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays," Nano Lett. 4, 1059-1062 (2004).

2002 (3)

T. Mukai, "Recent progress in group-III nitride light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 264-270 (2002).

C. Chen, S. Chang, Y. Su, J. Sheu, J. Chen, C. Kuo, Y. Lin, "Nitride-based cascade near white light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 908-910 (2002).

M. Yamada, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, "Phosphor free high-luminous-efficiency white light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multi-quantum well," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 246 (2002).

2001 (1)

B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, C. Pernot, J. Massies, "Monolithic white light emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 918 (2001).

1995 (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, "High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 797 (1995).

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, A. Polman, "Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2459-2462 (1995).

1974 (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, "Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface," J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2744-2748 (1974).

1972 (1)

P. Johnson, R. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).

1970 (2)

H. Kuhn, "Classical aspects of energy transfer in molecular systems," J. Chem. Phys. 53, 101-108 (1970).

K. Drexhage, "Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time," J. Lumin. 1, 693-701 (1970).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. Huang, C. Lu, T. Tang, J. Huang, C. Yang, "Phosphor-free white-light light-emitting diode of weakly carrier-density-dependent spectrum with prestrained growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 151122.

W. Guo, A. Banerjee, P. Bhattacharya, B. S. Ooi, "InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. ID 193102.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, H. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined stark effect with blueshift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).

A. David, N. F. Gardner, "Droop in III-nitrides: Comparison of bulk and injection contributions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. ID 193508.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. ID 261103.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, "Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 141101.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S.-C. Ling, T.-C. Lu, S.-P. Chang, J.-R. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, "Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 231101.

Appl. Phys. Exp. (1)

S. Yamamoto, Y. Zhao, C. Pan, R. Chung, K. Fujito, J. Sonoda, S. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "High-efficiency single-quantum-well green and yellow-green light-emitting diodes on semipolar (20–21) GaN substrates," Appl. Phys. Exp. 3, (2010) Art. ID 122102.

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H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. Sun, F. A. Ponce, "Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 101102.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, "Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) Art. ID 231104.

I. Park, J. Kim, M. Kwon, C. Cho, J. Lim, S. Park, "Phosphor-free white light-emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. ID 091110.

S. Lee, H. Paek, H. Kim, T. Jang, Y. Park, "Monolithic InGaN-based white light-emitting diodes with blue, green, and amber emissions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) Art. ID 081107.

S. Allen, A. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, "Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, (2011) Art. ID 161107.

H.-W. Lin, Y.-J. Lu, H.-Y. Chen, H.-M. Lee, S. Gwo, "InGaN/GaN nanorod array white light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) Art. ID 073101.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, "Polarization of light emission by 460 nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 051117.

Compound Semicond. (2)

B. Hahn, K. Engl, M. Klein, "Submerged electrodes boost high-brightness LED output," Compound Semicond. 15, 25 (2010).

M. Peter, "Osram explores the route to high-performance greens," Compound Semicond. 14, 16-18 (2008).

Electrochem. Soc. Interface (1)

A. Setlur, "Phosphors for LED-based solid-state lighting," Electrochem. Soc. Interface 33 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Mukai, "Recent progress in group-III nitride light-emitting diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 264-270 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Chen, S. Chang, Y. Su, J. Sheu, J. Chen, C. Kuo, Y. Lin, "Nitride-based cascade near white light-emitting diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 908-910 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. Damilano, P. Demolon, J. Brault, T. Huault, F. Natali, J. Massies, "Blue-green and white color tuning of monolithic light emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 108, (2010) Art. ID 073115.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, "Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching," J. Appl. Phys. 107, (2010) Art. ID 023522.

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

H. Kuhn, "Classical aspects of energy transfer in molecular systems," J. Chem. Phys. 53, 101-108 (1970).

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, "Lifetime of an emitting molecule near a partially reflecting surface," J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2744-2748 (1974).

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, A. Waag, "N-face GaN nanorods: Continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties," J. Cryst. Growth 315, 164-167 (2011).

W. Lundin, "Single quantum well deep-green LEDs with buried InGaN/GaN short-period superlattice," J. Cryst. Growth 315, 267-271 (2011).

J. Display Technol. (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

J. Lumin. (1)

K. Drexhage, "Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time," J. Lumin. 1, 693-701 (1970).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, T. Mukai, "White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 354002 (2010).

Journal of Lightwave Technology (1)

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, "Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111)silicon substrates," .

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, C. Pernot, J. Massies, "Monolithic white light emitting diodes based on InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 918 (2001).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, "High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 797 (1995).

A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, K. Kishino, "InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) Si substrate," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1524 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Yamada, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, "Phosphor free high-luminous-efficiency white light-emitting diodes composed of InGaN multi-quantum well," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 246 (2002).

Laser & Photon. Rev. (1)

J. Phillips, "Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting," Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 307-333 (2007).

Nano Lett. (3)

S. Hersee, X. Sun, X. Wang, "The controlled growth of GaN nanowires," Nano Lett. 6, 1808-1811 (2006).

R. Colby, Z. Liang, I. Wildeson, D. Ewoldt, T. Sands, R. Garcia, E. Stach, "Dislocation filtering in GaN nanostructures," Nano Lett. 10, 1568-1573 (2010).

H. Kim, Y. Cho, H. Lee, S. Kim, S. Ryu, D. Kim, T. Kang, K. Chung, "High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays," Nano Lett. 4, 1059-1062 (2004).

Nanotechnol. (1)

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, C. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. Li, H.-H. Wehmann, A. Waag, "Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells," Nanotechnol. 21, 305201 (2010).

Nature Mater. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, A. Scherer, "Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nature Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Sun, T. Lee, Y. Lo, C. Chen, S. Tsai, "Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs through passive/active photon recycling," Opt. Commun. 284, 4862-4868 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (1)

A. Neumann, J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. Brueck, J. Tsao, "Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality," Opt. Exp. 19, A982-A990 (2011).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Snoeks, A. Lagendijk, A. Polman, "Measuring and modifying the spontaneous emission rate of erbium near an interface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2459-2462 (1995).

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, B. Hahn, "New developments in green LEDs," Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 1125-1129 (2009).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Böcklin, R. Veprek, S. Steiger, B. Witzigmann, "Computational study of an InGaN/GaN nanocolumn light-emitting diode," Phys. Rev. B 81, (2010) Art. ID 155306.

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. P. Fussell, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijn de Sterke, "Three-dimensional Green's tensor, local density of states, and spontaneous emission in finite two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of cylinders," Phys. Rev. E 70, (2004) Art. ID 066608.

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Johnson, R. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).

Phys. Stat. Solidi A (1)

C. Kölper, M. Sabathil, F. Römer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, B. Witzigmann, "Core-shell InGaN nanorod light emitting diodes: Electronic and optical device properties," Phys. Stat. Solidi A DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201228178.

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

B. Galler, M. Sabathil, A. Laubsch, T. Meyer, L. Hoeppel, G. Kraeuter, H. Lugauer, M. Strassburg, M. Peter, A. Biebersdorf, U. Steegmueller, B. Hahn, "Green high-power light sources using InGaN multi-quantum-well structures for full conversion," Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 2369-2371 (2011).

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

V. Haerle, B. Hahn, S. Kaiser, A. Weimar, S. Bader, F. Eberhard, A. Plössl, D. Eisert, "High brightness LEDs for general lighting applications using the new ThinGaN-technology," Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 2736-2739 (2004).

J. Piprek, "Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes," Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 2217-2225 (2010).

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

J. Baur, F. Baumann, M. Peter, K. Engl, U. Zehnder, J. Off, V. Kuemmler, M. Kirsch, J. Strauss, R. Wirth, K. Streubel, B. Hahn, "Status of high efficiency and high power ThinGaN-LED development," Phys. Status Solidi C 6, 905-908 (2009).

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

A. Strittmatter, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, M. V. Kisin, P. Spiberg, H. El-Ghoroury, A. Usikov, A. Syrkin, "Semi-polar nitride surfaces and heterostructures," Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 561-573 (2011).

Phys. Status Solidi C (5)

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, P. Stauss, A. Walter, J. Baur, B. Hahn, "Green ThinGaN power-LED demonstrates 100 lm," Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 2050-2052 (2008).

P. Stauss, M. Mandl, P. Rode, A. Laubsch, A. Biebersdorf, R. Windisch, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, U. Steegmüller, "Monolitically grown dual wavelength InGaN LEDs for improved CRI," Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 2396-2398 (2011).

B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, S. Lutgen, "Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells: Microscopic theory," Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S864-S868 (2009).

A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, M. Sabathil, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, T. Meyer, G. Brüderl, J. Wagner, N. Linder, K. Streubel, B. Hahn, "Luminescence properties of thick InGaN quantum-wells," Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S885-S888 (2009).

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, M. Peter, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, K. Streubel, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, "On the origin of IQE-‘droop’ in InGaN LEDs," Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S913-S916 (2009).

Physik J. (1)

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, K. Streubel, "Licht aus Kristallen," Physik J. 9, 23-28 (2010).

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J. Tsao, M. Coltrin, M. Crawford, J. Simmons, "Solid-state lighting: An integrated human factors, technology, and economic perspective," Proc. IEEE 98, 1162-1179 (2010).

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M. Deppner, M. Bjelica, F. Römer, B. Witzigmann, "Computational study of multi-color InGaN/GaN nanowire LEDs with continuously varied indium composition," Proc. SPIE 8255, 82550G (2012).

F. Römer, M. Deppner, Z. Andreev, C. Kölper, M. Sabathil, M. Strassburg, J. Ledig, S. Li, A. Waag, B. Witzigmann, "Luminescence and efficiency optimization of InGaN/GaN core-shell nanowire LEDs by numerical modelling," Proc. SPIE 8255, 82550H (2012).

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