Abstract

Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode-locked by bilayer graphene is presented. The graphene layers were grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Cu substrate and transferred onto a fused silica window, forming a saturable absorber (SA). Low non-saturable losses and modulation depth as high as 55% allowed to achieve soliton pulses with over 11 nm bandwidth and nearly-transform limited 315 fs duration at 1564 nm center wavelength. The paper describes the design of the laser construction, as well as the graphene-SA preparation process. Our study demonstrates, that CVD-Cu graphene transferred on glass substrate may be used for efficient mode-locking of fiber lasers.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, "Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077-3083 (2009).
  2. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, "Nanotube—Polymer composites for ultrafast photonics," Adv. Mater. 21, 3874-3899 (2009).
  3. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, "Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene," Opt. Exp. 17, 17630-17635 (2009).
  4. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, "Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: From all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591-596 (2010).
  5. H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, "Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) art. no. 111112.
  6. P. L. Huang, S. Lin, C. Yeh, H. Kuo, S. Huang, G. Lin, L. Li, C. Su, W. Cheng, "Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber," Opt. Exp. 20, 2460-2465 (2012).
  7. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, "Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) art. no. 203106.
  8. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, "Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser," ACS Nano 4, 803-810 (2010).
  9. Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, A. C. Ferrari, "A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser," Nano Res. 3, 653-660 (2010).
  10. H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, (2009) art. no. 141103.
  11. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, "Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing," Opt. Exp. 18, 23054-23061 (2010).
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  13. Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. Song, "Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) art. no. 211102.
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  15. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, "Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene," Opt. Lett. 35, 3622-3624 (2010).
  16. J. Liu, R. Wei, X. Xu, P. Wang, "Mode-locked fiber laser with few-layer epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC substrates," Proc. CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Tech. Dig. (2011).
  17. J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, P. Wang, "High-energy all-normal-dispersion graphene mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser," Proc. CLEO/Europe EQEC 2011 Conf .OSA Tech. Dig. (2011).
  18. J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, Y. Song, Z. Wang, P. Wang, "163 nJ graphene mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser," Proc. CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Appl., OSA Tech. Dig. (2011).
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  20. X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, R. S. Ruoff, "Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils," Science 324, 1312-1314 (2009).
  21. A. Reina, H. Son, L. Jiao, B. Fan, M. S. Dresselhaus, Z. Liu, J. Kong, "Transferring and identification of single- and few-layer graphene on arbitrary substrates," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 17741-17744 (2008).
  22. X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, Ch. Ann Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. Hight Walker, Z. Liu, L. Peng, C. A. Richter, "Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene," ACS Nano 5, 9144-9153 (2011).
  23. A. C. Ferrari, "Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: Disorder, electron-phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects," Solid State Commun. 143, 47-57 (2007).
  24. J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millan-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, (2008) art. no. 125504.
  25. N. Camara, J.-R. Huntzinger, G. Rius, A. Tiberj, N. Mestres, F. Perez-Murano, P. Godignon, J. Camassel, "Anisotropic growth of long isolated graphene ribbons on the C face of graphite-capped 6H-SiC," Phys. Rev. B. 80, (2009) art. no. 125410.
  26. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, R. Saito, "Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 1276-1290 (2007).
  27. D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, L. Wirtz, "Spatially resolved raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene," Nano Lett. 7, 238-242 (2007).
  28. P. Nemes-Incze, Z. Osvath, K. Kamaras, L. P. Biro, "Anomalies in thickness measurements of graphene and few layer graphite crystals by tapping mode atomic force microscopy," Carbon 46, 1435-1442 (2008).
  29. M. Nikodem, K. Abramski, "169 MHz repetition frequency all-fiber passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 283, 109-112 (2010).
  30. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Xu, D. Tang, K. P. Loh, "Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser," Nano Res. 4, 297-307 (2011).
  31. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

2012 (2)

P. L. Huang, S. Lin, C. Yeh, H. Kuo, S. Huang, G. Lin, L. Li, C. Su, W. Cheng, "Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber," Opt. Exp. 20, 2460-2465 (2012).

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, K. M. Abramski, "Fundamental and harmonic mode-locking in erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 285, 3174-3178 (2012).

2011 (3)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, "Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) art. no. 121107.

X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, Ch. Ann Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. Hight Walker, Z. Liu, L. Peng, C. A. Richter, "Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene," ACS Nano 5, 9144-9153 (2011).

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Xu, D. Tang, K. P. Loh, "Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser," Nano Res. 4, 297-307 (2011).

2010 (9)

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, "Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene," Opt. Lett. 35, 3622-3624 (2010).

M. Nikodem, K. Abramski, "169 MHz repetition frequency all-fiber passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 283, 109-112 (2010).

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, "Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing," Opt. Exp. 18, 23054-23061 (2010).

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. Song, "Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) art. no. 211102.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, "Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) art. no. 203106.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, "Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser," ACS Nano 4, 803-810 (2010).

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, A. C. Ferrari, "A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser," Nano Res. 3, 653-660 (2010).

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, "Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: From all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591-596 (2010).

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, "Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) art. no. 111112.

2009 (6)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, "Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077-3083 (2009).

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, "Nanotube—Polymer composites for ultrafast photonics," Adv. Mater. 21, 3874-3899 (2009).

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, "Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene," Opt. Exp. 17, 17630-17635 (2009).

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, (2009) art. no. 141103.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, R. S. Ruoff, "Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils," Science 324, 1312-1314 (2009).

N. Camara, J.-R. Huntzinger, G. Rius, A. Tiberj, N. Mestres, F. Perez-Murano, P. Godignon, J. Camassel, "Anisotropic growth of long isolated graphene ribbons on the C face of graphite-capped 6H-SiC," Phys. Rev. B. 80, (2009) art. no. 125410.

2008 (4)

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millan-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, (2008) art. no. 125504.

P. Nemes-Incze, Z. Osvath, K. Kamaras, L. P. Biro, "Anomalies in thickness measurements of graphene and few layer graphite crystals by tapping mode atomic force microscopy," Carbon 46, 1435-1442 (2008).

A. Reina, H. Son, L. Jiao, B. Fan, M. S. Dresselhaus, Z. Liu, J. Kong, "Transferring and identification of single- and few-layer graphene on arbitrary substrates," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 17741-17744 (2008).

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, "Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition," Nano Lett. 9, 30-35 (2008).

2007 (3)

A. C. Ferrari, "Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: Disorder, electron-phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects," Solid State Commun. 143, 47-57 (2007).

A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, R. Saito, "Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 1276-1290 (2007).

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, L. Wirtz, "Spatially resolved raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene," Nano Lett. 7, 238-242 (2007).

ACS Nano (1)

X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, Ch. Ann Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. Hight Walker, Z. Liu, L. Peng, C. A. Richter, "Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene," ACS Nano 5, 9144-9153 (2011).

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, "Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser," ACS Nano 4, 803-810 (2010).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, "Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077-3083 (2009).

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, "Nanotube—Polymer composites for ultrafast photonics," Adv. Mater. 21, 3874-3899 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, S. Yamashita, "Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, (2011) art. no. 121107.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y. Song, "Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) art. no. 211102.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, "Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, (2010) art. no. 203106.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, K. Loh, "Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, (2009) art. no. 141103.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. P. Loh, "Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, (2010) art. no. 111112.

Carbon (1)

P. Nemes-Incze, Z. Osvath, K. Kamaras, L. P. Biro, "Anomalies in thickness measurements of graphene and few layer graphite crystals by tapping mode atomic force microscopy," Carbon 46, 1435-1442 (2008).

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

A. Reina, H. Son, L. Jiao, B. Fan, M. S. Dresselhaus, Z. Liu, J. Kong, "Transferring and identification of single- and few-layer graphene on arbitrary substrates," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 17741-17744 (2008).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, "Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: From all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591-596 (2010).

Nano Lett. (2)

D. Graf, F. Molitor, K. Ensslin, C. Stampfer, A. Jungen, C. Hierold, L. Wirtz, "Spatially resolved raman spectroscopy of single- and few-layer graphene," Nano Lett. 7, 238-242 (2007).

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, "Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition," Nano Lett. 9, 30-35 (2008).

Nano Res. (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. Xu, D. Tang, K. P. Loh, "Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser," Nano Res. 4, 297-307 (2011).

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, A. C. Ferrari, "A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser," Nano Res. 3, 653-660 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, "Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing," Opt. Exp. 18, 23054-23061 (2010).

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, K. M. Abramski, "Fundamental and harmonic mode-locking in erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber," Opt. Commun. 285, 3174-3178 (2012).

M. Nikodem, K. Abramski, "169 MHz repetition frequency all-fiber passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 283, 109-112 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (2)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, "Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene," Opt. Exp. 17, 17630-17635 (2009).

P. L. Huang, S. Lin, C. Yeh, H. Kuo, S. Huang, G. Lin, L. Li, C. Su, W. Cheng, "Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber," Opt. Exp. 20, 2460-2465 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

N. Camara, J.-R. Huntzinger, G. Rius, A. Tiberj, N. Mestres, F. Perez-Murano, P. Godignon, J. Camassel, "Anisotropic growth of long isolated graphene ribbons on the C face of graphite-capped 6H-SiC," Phys. Rev. B. 80, (2009) art. no. 125410.

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millan-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, (2008) art. no. 125504.

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, R. Saito, "Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 1276-1290 (2007).

Science (1)

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, R. S. Ruoff, "Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils," Science 324, 1312-1314 (2009).

Solid State Commun. (1)

A. C. Ferrari, "Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: Disorder, electron-phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects," Solid State Commun. 143, 47-57 (2007).

Other (4)

J. Liu, R. Wei, X. Xu, P. Wang, "Mode-locked fiber laser with few-layer epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC substrates," Proc. CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Tech. Dig. (2011).

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, P. Wang, "High-energy all-normal-dispersion graphene mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser," Proc. CLEO/Europe EQEC 2011 Conf .OSA Tech. Dig. (2011).

J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. Yang, Y. Song, Z. Wang, P. Wang, "163 nJ graphene mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser," Proc. CLEO:2011—Laser Applications to Photonic Appl., OSA Tech. Dig. (2011).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

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