Abstract

We present an alternative method for the complete characterization of linear passive optical devices using the measurement of the spectral power density of an intermediate interferometric transfer function. Important advantages of this method compared to other published methods are the simplicity of the interferometric setup and the fact that iterative algorithms are not required. This method makes use of spectral interferometry to implement an intermediate transfer function which is mathematically related to the optical device transfer function and whose phase response is proven to be minimum. This last fact permits the unique retrieval of the phase response from the magnitude response using the Hilbert transform (in particular, minimum-phase reconstruction algorithms). Therefore, the whole intermediate transfer function (amplitude and phase responses) can be obtained using only power measurements. Once the intermediate interferometric function has been fully established, the complete optical device transfer function is reconstructed by inverting the mathematical relation between them. We have applied the proposed method to the characterization of fiber Bragg gratings, obtaining results that are in close agreement with the original transfer functions.

© 2012 IEEE

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2010 (1)

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement," Nature Photon. 4, 248-254 (2010).

2009 (2)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, N. R. Newbury, "Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range," Nature Photon. 3, 351-356 (2009).

A. Mecozzi, "Retrieving the full optical response from amplitude data by Hilbert transform," Opt. Commun. 282, 4183-4187 (2009).

2008 (1)

F. Li, Y. Park, J. Azaña, "Group delay characterization of dispersive devices using a pulse temporal intensity measurement setup," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2042-2044 (2008).

2007 (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. Ozcan, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, "Characterization of fiber Bragg gratings using spectral interferometry based on minimum-phase functions," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1739-1757 (2006).

A. Ozcan, M. J. F. Digonnet, L. Lablonde, D. Pureur, G. S. Kino, "A new iterative technique to characterize and design transmission fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1913-1921 (2006).

2005 (2)

D. K. Gifford, B. J. Soller, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "Optical vector network analyzer for single-scan measurements of loss, group delay, and polarization mode dispersion," Appl. Opt. 44, 7282-7286 (2005).

J. B. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).

2000 (1)

R. Feced, M. Zervas, "Effects of random phase and amplitude errors in optical fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 90-101 (2000).

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

1997 (4)

M. A. Muriel, A. Carballar, "Phase reconstruction from reflectivity in uniform fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 93-95 (1997).

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, "Phase reconstruction from reflectivity in fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1314-1322 (1997).

L. Poladian, "Group-delay reconstruction for fiber Bragg gratings in reflection and transmission," Opt. Lett. 22, 1571-1573 (1997).

B. J. Eggleton, G. Lenz, N. Litchinitser, D. B. Patterson, R. E. Slusher, "Implications of fiber grating dispersion for WDM communications systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1403-1405 (1997).

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, M. Joffre, "Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 12, 2467-2474 (1995).

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).

1993 (1)

U. Glombitza, E. Brinkmeyer, "Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1377-1384 (1993).

1987 (1)

1982 (1)

M. Takeda, H. Ina, S. Kobayashi, "Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 72, 156-160 (1982).

1970 (1)

E. Wolf, "Determination of the amplitude and the phase of scattered fields by holography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 18-20 (1970).

1960 (1)

P. Jaquinot, "New developments in interference spectroscopy," Rep. Prog. Phys. 23, 267-312 (1960).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. A. Muriel, A. Carballar, J. Azaña, "Field distributions inside fiber gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 548-558 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. J. Eggleton, G. Lenz, N. Litchinitser, D. B. Patterson, R. E. Slusher, "Implications of fiber grating dispersion for WDM communications systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1403-1405 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Li, Y. Park, J. Azaña, "Group delay characterization of dispersive devices using a pulse temporal intensity measurement setup," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2042-2044 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. Feced, M. Zervas, "Effects of random phase and amplitude errors in optical fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 90-101 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

E. Wolf, "Determination of the amplitude and the phase of scattered fields by holography," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 60, 18-20 (1970).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

U. Glombitza, E. Brinkmeyer, "Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1377-1384 (1993).

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, "Phase reconstruction from reflectivity in fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1314-1322 (1997).

A. Ozcan, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, "Characterization of fiber Bragg gratings using spectral interferometry based on minimum-phase functions," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1739-1757 (2006).

A. Ozcan, M. J. F. Digonnet, L. Lablonde, D. Pureur, G. S. Kino, "A new iterative technique to characterize and design transmission fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1913-1921 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

M. Takeda, H. Ina, S. Kobayashi, "Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 72, 156-160 (1982).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. (1)

L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, M. Joffre, "Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 12, 2467-2474 (1995).

Nature Photon. (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, N. R. Newbury, "Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range," Nature Photon. 3, 351-356 (2009).

Nature Photon. (2)

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement," Nature Photon. 4, 248-254 (2010).

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716 (2007).

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).

A. Mecozzi, "Retrieving the full optical response from amplitude data by Hilbert transform," Opt. Commun. 282, 4183-4187 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. B. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (6)

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Jaquinot, "New developments in interference spectroscopy," Rep. Prog. Phys. 23, 267-312 (1960).

Other (8)

M. M. Ohn, S. Y. Huang, S. Sandgren, R. Measures, T. Alavie, "Measurement of fiber grating properties using an interferometric and Fourier-transform-based technique," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (1997) pp. 154-155.

M. Froggatt, T. Erdogan, J. Moore, S. Shenk, "Optical frequency domain characterization (OFDC) of dispersion in optical fiber Bragg gratings," presented at the Proc. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides StuartFL Paper BC2.

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1989).

J. W. Brown, R. V. Churchill, Complex Variables and Applications (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

L. Mandel, E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995).

M. A. Fiddy, Image Recovery: Theory and Application (Academic, 1987).

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).

S. V. Vaseghi, Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction (Wiley, 2009).

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