Abstract

Optical access networks have been widely adopted to support the exponential growth in bandwidth demand. To further fulfill the growth efficiently, reconfigurable wavelength division multiplexing–time division multiplexing optical access networks have been proposed in which optical network units can be reallocated to another wavelength on demand. Thus, the reconfigurability allows dynamic sharing of both wavelengths and timeslots. However, it requires a substantial addition to capital expenditure per user, which is prohibitive in access networks. This paper investigates an approach to preserve the merits of reconfigurability while significantly reducing the network complexity, thus cost by adjusting the level of flexibility. We define a parameter designated as the degree of flexibility to indicate the level of flexibility of a network. Then, we evaluate the performance of various degrees of flexibility based on the traffic capacity and the power consumption. The results suggest that introducing limited wavelength flexibility to the network significantly improves the performance in comparison to the static network while a highly or fully flexible network can further improve the performance but with smaller additional margins. Finally, we apply this result to a well-known reconfigurable architecture, the broadcast-and-select, to illustrate how the limited flexibility can help to reduce the network cost in terms of the optical power budget.

© 2012 IEEE

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2011 (1)

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Naughton, A. M. Clarke, H.-G. Krimmel, X. Yin, X.-Z. Qui, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. W. Smith, S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, P. D. Townsend, "Demonstration of a 32×512 split, 100 km reach, 2×32×10 Gb/s hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON using tunable external cavity lasers in the ONUs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3705-3718 (2011).

2010 (2)

D. Lavery, M. Ionescu, S. Makovejs, E. Torrengo, S. J. Savory, "A long-reach ultra-dense 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 18, 25855-25860 (2010).

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, C. Lin, "Studies of OFDM signal for broadband optical access networks," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 800-807 (2010).

2009 (2)

2006 (1)

T. Koonen, "Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: What, where, and when?," Proc. IEEE 94, 911-934 (2006).

2005 (2)

Y. L. Hsueh, M. S. Rogge, S. Yamamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, "A highly flexible and efficient passive optical network employing dynamic wavelength allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 277-286 (2005).

C. Bock, J. Prat, S. D. Walker, "Hybrid WDM/TDM PON using the AWG FSR and featuring centralized light generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3981-3988 (2005).

1997 (1)

T. Koonen, T. Muys, C. van der Plaats, S. M. H. de Groot, H. J. H. N. Kenter, I. G. M. M. Niemegeers, F. N. C. Slothouber, "TOBASCO: An innovative approach for upgrading CATV fiber-coax networks for broadband interactive services," Commun. Mag. 35, 76-81 (1997).

Commun. Mag. (1)

T. Koonen, T. Muys, C. van der Plaats, S. M. H. de Groot, H. J. H. N. Kenter, I. G. M. M. Niemegeers, F. N. C. Slothouber, "TOBASCO: An innovative approach for upgrading CATV fiber-coax networks for broadband interactive services," Commun. Mag. 35, 76-81 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

Y. L. Hsueh, M. S. Rogge, S. Yamamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, "A highly flexible and efficient passive optical network employing dynamic wavelength allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 277-286 (2005).

C. Bock, J. Prat, S. D. Walker, "Hybrid WDM/TDM PON using the AWG FSR and featuring centralized light generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3981-3988 (2005).

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. Naughton, A. M. Clarke, H.-G. Krimmel, X. Yin, X.-Z. Qui, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. W. Smith, S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, P. D. Townsend, "Demonstration of a 32×512 split, 100 km reach, 2×32×10 Gb/s hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON using tunable external cavity lasers in the ONUs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 3705-3718 (2011).

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

M. Maier, "WDM passive optical networks and beyond: The road ahead [invited]," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, C1-C16 (2009).

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wu, S. Chi, C. Lin, "Studies of OFDM signal for broadband optical access networks," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 800-807 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

D. Lavery, M. Ionescu, S. Makovejs, E. Torrengo, S. J. Savory, "A long-reach ultra-dense 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Exp. 18, 25855-25860 (2010).

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. Koonen, "Fiber to the home/fiber to the premises: What, where, and when?," Proc. IEEE 94, 911-934 (2006).

Other (18)

Cisco visual networking index: Forecast and methodology, 2010–2015 (2011) Cisco White Paper.

G. Puerto, J. Mora, B. Ortega, J. Capmany, "Selective multicast in a dynamic wavelength router for DWDM converged wired/wireless access networks," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.

N. C. Tran, H. D. Jung, C. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, T. Koonen, "ARON: A SOA array-based WDM-TDM reconfigurable optical access network," Proc. Future Netw. Mobile Summit (2010) pp. 1-7.

R. Glatty, P. Guignard, P. Chanclou, "Flexible optical access network with SOA amplification," Proc. Int. Conf. Commun. (2008) pp. 5182-5185.

N. C. Tran, H. D. Jung, C. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, T. Koonen, "A 10 Gb/s passive-components-based WDM-TDM reconfigurable optical access network architecture," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2011) pp. 1-3.

R. Glatty, P. Guignard, P. Chanclou, "Flexibility in access networks: A novel WDMA/TDMA scheme for passive optical networks," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2007) pp. 1-3.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, K. Kloppe, "Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone," Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2009) pp. 1-3.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, D. Qian, T. Wang, "1.2 Tb/s symmetric WDM-OFDMA-PON over 90 km straight SSMF and 1:32 passive split with digitally-selective ONUs and coherent receiver OLT," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2011) pp. 1-3.

J. Park, G. Y. Kim, H. J. Park, J. H. Kim, "FTTH deployment status & strategy in Korea: GW-PON based FTTH field trial and reach extension strategy of FTTH in Korea," Proc. Global Telecom. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.

"Requirements for European next-generation optical access networks," Optical Access Seamless Evolution (OASE) Project Deliverable (2010) http://www.ict-oase.eu.

"Project announcement and request for information," Google Inc. (2010) http://www.google.com/appserve/fiberrfi/public/overview.

H. D. Jung, N. C. Tran, C. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, T. Koonen, "10 Gb/s bi-directional symmetric WDM-PON system based on POLMUX technique with polarization insensitive ONU," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.

J. Mora, B. Ortega, J. Capmany, F. Grassi, "Bi-directional optical access network based on POLMUX technique using centralized light sources," Proc. Microw. Photon. Conf. (2009) pp. 1-4.

N. C. Tran, A. M. J. Koonen, C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, "Limited flexibility: A cost-effective trade-off for reconfigurable WDM-TDM optical access networks," Proc. 37th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2011) pp. 1-3.

Y. J. Won, M. J. Choi, B. C. Park, J. W. Hong, H. W. Lee, C. K. Hwang, J. H. Yoo, "End-user IPTV traffic measurement of residential broadband access networks," Proc. Netw. Oper. Manag. Symp. (2008) pp. 95-100.

Traffic measurements and models in multi-service networks (TRAMMS) project TRAMMS IP Traffic report no. 2 (2008) http://projects.celtic-initiative.org/tramms.

"88-channel 50 GHz AWG datasheet," Enablence Technologies Inc. http://www.enablence.com (2010).

A. M. J. Koonen, N. C. Tran, E. Tangdiongga, "The merits of reconfigurability in WDM-TDM optical in-building networks," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2011) pp. 1-3.

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