Abstract

In this paper, we report on recent experimental results obtained with fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) hydrophones for underwater acoustic detection. The optical hydrophones under investigation consist of FBGs coated with ring-shaped polymers of different size and mechanical properties. The coating materials were selected and designed in order to provide mechanical amplification, via judicious choice of their acousto-mechanical properties and by exploiting selected resonances occurring in different frequency ranges. Our underwater acoustic measurements, carried out within the range 4–35 kHz, reveal the resonant behavior of these optical hydrophones, as well as its dependence on the coating size and type of material. These experimental data are also in good agreement with our previously published numerical results. By comparison with bare (i.e., uncoated) FBGs, responsivity enhancements of up to three orders of magnitude were found, demonstrating the effectiveness of polymeric coatings in tailoring the acoustic response of FBG-based hydrophones.

© 2012 IEEE

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  35. M. Moccia, M. Consales, A. Iadicicco, M. Pisco, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Resonant hydrophones based on coated fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Experimental analysis," Proc. SPIE (2011) pp. 775383-1-775383-4.
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  39. A. Sorathia, Polyurethane-Epoxy Interpenetrating Polymer Network Acoustic Damping Material U.S. Patent 5?331?062 (1994).
  40. F. A. Khayyat, P. Stanley, "The dependence of the mechanical, physical and optical properties of Araldite CT200/HT 907 on temperature over the range ${-}10^{\circ}$C to 70°C," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 11, 1237-1247 (1978).
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2011 (2)

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, J. van Velzen, "Towards a high performance fiber laser hydrophone," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1335-1342 (2011).

M. Moccia, M. Pisco, A. Cutolo, V. Galdi, P. Bevilacqua, A. Cusano, "Resonant behavior of coated fiber Bragg gratings as underwater acoustic sensors," Opt. Exp. 19, 18842-18860 (2011).

2009 (3)

S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, M. Giordano, G. Parente, G. Lanza, A. Laudati, "Underwater acoustic sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings," Sensors 9, 4446-4454 (2009).

L. Ma, H. Yongming, L. Hong, H. Zhengliang, "DFB fiber laser hydrophone with flat frequency response and enhanced acoustic pressure sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 21, 1280-1282 (2009).

H. Tsuda, E. Sato, T. Nakajima, H. Nakamura, T. Arakawa, H. Shiono, M. Minato, H. Kurabayashi, A. Sato, "Acoustic emission measurement using a strain-insensitive fiber Bragg grating sensor under varying load conditions," Opt. Lett. 34, 2942-2944 (2009).

2008 (4)

G. A. Cranch, G. M. H. Flockhart, C. K. Kirkendall, "Distributed feedback fiber laser strain sensors," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1161-1172 (2008).

G. Wild, S. Hinckley, "Acousto-ultrasonic optical fiber sensors: Overview and state-of-the-art," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1184-1192 (2008).

B. Culshaw, G. J. Thursby, D. Betz, B. L. Sorazu, "The detection of ultrasound using fiber-optic sensors," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1360-1367 (2008).

W. Zhang, Y. Liu, F. Li, H. Xiao, "Fiber laser hydrophone based on double diaphragms: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1349-1352 (2008).

2007 (2)

A. Cusano, S. D'Addio, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Balbi, S. Balzarini, M. Giordano, "Enhanced acoustic sensitivity in polymeric coated fiber Bragg grating," Sens. Trans. J. 82, 1450-1457 (2007).

T. Pritz, "The Poisson's loss factor of solid viscoelastic materials," J. Sound Vibrat. 306, 790-802 (2007).

2006 (3)

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, W. Staszewski, "Identification of structural damage using multifunctional Bragg grating sensors: I. Theory and implementation," Smart Mater. Struct. 15, 1305-1312 (2006).

J. R. Lee, H. Tsuda, "Sensor application of fibre ultrasonic waveguide," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 645-652 (2006).

S. Tanaka, H. Yokosuka, N. Takahashi, "Temperature-independent fiber Bragg grating underwater acoustic sensor array using incoherent light," Acoust. Sci. Technol. 27, 50-52 (2006).

2005 (1)

H. Yokosuka, S. Tanaka, N. Takahashi, "Time-division multiplexing operation of temperature-compensated fiber Bragg grating underwater acoustic sensor array with feedback control," Acoust. Sci. Technol. 26, 456-458 (2005).

2004 (2)

G. Thursby, B. Sorazu, D. Betz, W. Staszewski, B. Culshaw, "The use of fibre optic sensors for damage detection and location in structural materials," Appl. Mech. Mater. 1–2, 191-196 (2004).

C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, R197-R216 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, W. Staszewski, "Acousto-ultrasonic sensing using fiber Bragg gratings," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 122-128 (2003).

2000 (2)

N. Takahashi, K. Yoshimura, S. Takahashi, K. Imamura, "Development of an optical fiber hydrophone with fiber Bragg grating," Ultrasonics 8, 581-585 (2000).

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, "Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 36, 564-566 (2000).

1999 (1)

D. J. Hill, G. A. Cranch, "Gain in hydrostatic pressure sensitivity of coated fiber Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 1268-1269 (1999).

1997 (1)

N. Takahashi, A. Hirose, S. Takahashi, "Underwater acoustic sensor with fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Rev. 4, 691-694 (1997).

1979 (3)

1978 (1)

F. A. Khayyat, P. Stanley, "The dependence of the mechanical, physical and optical properties of Araldite CT200/HT 907 on temperature over the range ${-}10^{\circ}$C to 70°C," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 11, 1237-1247 (1978).

1977 (2)

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, P. G. Bhuta, "Fiber optic detection of sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 62, 1136-1138 (1977).

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, "Fiber optic hydrophone," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 62, 1302-1304 (1977).

Acoust. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. Yokosuka, S. Tanaka, N. Takahashi, "Time-division multiplexing operation of temperature-compensated fiber Bragg grating underwater acoustic sensor array with feedback control," Acoust. Sci. Technol. 26, 456-458 (2005).

Acoust. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Tanaka, H. Yokosuka, N. Takahashi, "Temperature-independent fiber Bragg grating underwater acoustic sensor array using incoherent light," Acoust. Sci. Technol. 27, 50-52 (2006).

Appl. Mech. Mater. (1)

G. Thursby, B. Sorazu, D. Betz, W. Staszewski, B. Culshaw, "The use of fibre optic sensors for damage detection and location in structural materials," Appl. Mech. Mater. 1–2, 191-196 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (1)

G. B. Hocker, "Fiber optic acoustic sensors with composite structure: An analysis," Appl. Opt. 18, 3679-3683 (1979).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. J. Hill, G. A. Cranch, "Gain in hydrostatic pressure sensitivity of coated fiber Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 35, 1268-1269 (1999).

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, Z. Guo, Y. Zhang, K. S. Chiang, X. Dong, "Simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement with polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 36, 564-566 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett (1)

L. Ma, H. Yongming, L. Hong, H. Zhengliang, "DFB fiber laser hydrophone with flat frequency response and enhanced acoustic pressure sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 21, 1280-1282 (2009).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

G. Wild, S. Hinckley, "Acousto-ultrasonic optical fiber sensors: Overview and state-of-the-art," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1184-1192 (2008).

IEEE Sensors J. (2)

B. Culshaw, G. J. Thursby, D. Betz, B. L. Sorazu, "The detection of ultrasound using fiber-optic sensors," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1360-1367 (2008).

G. A. Cranch, G. M. H. Flockhart, C. K. Kirkendall, "Distributed feedback fiber laser strain sensors," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1161-1172 (2008).

J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. (2)

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, P. G. Bhuta, "Fiber optic detection of sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 62, 1136-1138 (1977).

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, "Fiber optic hydrophone," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 62, 1302-1304 (1977).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

W. Zhang, Y. Liu, F. Li, H. Xiao, "Fiber laser hydrophone based on double diaphragms: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1349-1352 (2008).

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, J. van Velzen, "Towards a high performance fiber laser hydrophone," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1335-1342 (2011).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, R197-R216 (2004).

F. A. Khayyat, P. Stanley, "The dependence of the mechanical, physical and optical properties of Araldite CT200/HT 907 on temperature over the range ${-}10^{\circ}$C to 70°C," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 11, 1237-1247 (1978).

J. Sound Vibrat. (1)

T. Pritz, "The Poisson's loss factor of solid viscoelastic materials," J. Sound Vibrat. 306, 790-802 (2007).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. R. Lee, H. Tsuda, "Sensor application of fibre ultrasonic waveguide," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 645-652 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

M. Moccia, M. Pisco, A. Cutolo, V. Galdi, P. Bevilacqua, A. Cusano, "Resonant behavior of coated fiber Bragg gratings as underwater acoustic sensors," Opt. Exp. 19, 18842-18860 (2011).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

N. Takahashi, A. Hirose, S. Takahashi, "Underwater acoustic sensor with fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Rev. 4, 691-694 (1997).

Sens. Trans. J. (1)

A. Cusano, S. D'Addio, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Balbi, S. Balzarini, M. Giordano, "Enhanced acoustic sensitivity in polymeric coated fiber Bragg grating," Sens. Trans. J. 82, 1450-1457 (2007).

Sensors (1)

S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, M. Giordano, G. Parente, G. Lanza, A. Laudati, "Underwater acoustic sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings," Sensors 9, 4446-4454 (2009).

Smart Mater. Struct. (2)

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, W. Staszewski, "Acousto-ultrasonic sensing using fiber Bragg gratings," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 122-128 (2003).

D. C. Betz, G. Thursby, B. Culshaw, W. Staszewski, "Identification of structural damage using multifunctional Bragg grating sensors: I. Theory and implementation," Smart Mater. Struct. 15, 1305-1312 (2006).

Ultrasonics (1)

N. Takahashi, K. Yoshimura, S. Takahashi, K. Imamura, "Development of an optical fiber hydrophone with fiber Bragg grating," Ultrasonics 8, 581-585 (2000).

Other (15)

S. Tanaka, H. Yokosuka, N. Takahashi, "Temperature-stabilized fiber Bragg grating underwater acoustic sensor array using incoherent light," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 699-702.

N. Takahashi, K. Tetsumura, S. Takahashi, "Multipoint detection of an acoustical wave in water with WDM fiber Bragg grating sensor," Proc. SPIE (1999) pp. 270-273.

P. Wierzba, P. Karioja, "Modelling of active fiber Bragg grating underwater acoustic sensor," Proc. SPIE (2004) pp. 348-354.

D. J. Hill, P. J. Nash, "In-water acoustic response of a coated DFB fibre laser sensor," Proc. SPIE (2000) pp. 33-36.

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Milnes, J. van Velzen, G. Hardy, "A fibre laser hydrophone," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 627-630.

M. Moccia, M. Pisco, A. Cutolo, V. Galdi, A. Cusano, "Resonant hydrophones based on coated fiber Bragg gratings—Part I: Numerical analysis," Proc. SPIE (2011) pp. 775384-1-775384-4.

M. Moccia, M. Consales, A. Iadicicco, M. Pisco, A. Cutolo, A. Cusano, "Resonant hydrophones based on coated fiber Bragg gratings. Part II: Experimental analysis," Proc. SPIE (2011) pp. 775383-1-775383-4.

Huntsman Advanced Materials www.huntsmanservice.com/Product_Finder/ui/PSDetailCompositeList.do?pInfoSBUId=9&PCId=1663.

http://www.efunda.com/materials/polymers/properties/polymer_datasheet.cfm?MajorID=PU&MinorID=1.

S. Goodman, S. Foster, J. van Velzen, H. Mendis, "Field demonstration of a DFB fibre laser hydrophone seabed array in Jervis Bay, Australia," Proc. SPIE (2009) pp. 75034L1-75034L4.

S. Goodman, A. Tikhomirov, S. Foster, "Pressure compensated distributed feedback fibre laser hydrophone," Proc. SPIE (2008) pp. 700426-1-700426-4.

A. Sorathia, Polyurethane-Epoxy Interpenetrating Polymer Network Acoustic Damping Material U.S. Patent 5?331?062 (1994).

F. J. P. Chaves, Application of adhesive bonding in PVC windows M.Sc Thesis University of PortoPortoPortugal (2005) http://www.scribd.com/doc/37203644/MSc-Thesis.

B. Möller Chemie, Technical Data: PUR and Epoxy http://www.bm-chemie.de/content/de/download/pub/Elektrogiessharze_12_03_2009.pdf.

J. Preisig, "Acoustic propagation considerations for underwater acoustic communications network development," Proc. 1st ACM Int. Workshop Underwater Netw. (2006) pp. 1-5.

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