Abstract

We theoretically investigate a widely-used plasmonic structure composed of a nano-slit aperture surrounded by surface corrugations. A systematical semi-analytical theory in form of two nested coupled-mode models is developed to provide intuitive physical pictures. Based on the theory, figures of merit (FoMs) of the structures designed for normal and for oblique incidence/beaming are defined for the first time to incorporate the interlinks among key structural parameters, making global optimization simple and efficient. Both the theory and the FoMs are quantitatively validated with exhaustive calculations and shown to be highly accurate on performance prediction and structural optimization. With the theory and the FoMs, an efficient, effective and standard recipe is introduced for optimal structure design. We believe this work will help to understand the mechanisms of and to facilitate the design of such a structure in various configurations used in various applications.

© 2012 IEEE

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  4. S. Carretero-Palacios, O. Mahboub, F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Mechanisms for extraordinary optical transmission through bull's eye structures," Opt. Exp. 19, 10 429-10 442 (2011).
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  23. A. Degiron, T. W. Ebbesen, "Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations," Opt. Exp. 12, 3694-3700 (2004).
  24. P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).
  25. G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. V. D. Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, "The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wavemodel," Nat. Phys. 2, 262-267 (2006).
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  34. G. Li, L. Cai, F. Xiao, Y. Pei, A. Xu, "A quantitative theory and the generalized Bragg condition for surface plasmon Bragg reflectors," Opt. Exp. 18, 10 487-10 499 (2010).
  35. G. Li, F. Xiao, L. Cai, K. Alameh, A. Xu, "Theory of the scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons by finite-size subwavelength metallic defects via field decomposition," New J. Phys. 13, 073045 (2011).
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2011 (3)

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, M. L. Brongersma, "Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission," Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).

S. Carretero-Palacios, O. Mahboub, F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Mechanisms for extraordinary optical transmission through bull's eye structures," Opt. Exp. 19, 10 429-10 442 (2011).

G. Li, F. Xiao, L. Cai, K. Alameh, A. Xu, "Theory of the scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons by finite-size subwavelength metallic defects via field decomposition," New J. Phys. 13, 073045 (2011).

2010 (9)

G. Zheng, X. Cui, C. Yang, "Surface-wave enabled darkfield aperture for background suppression during weak signal detection," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107, 9043-9048 (2010).

L. Cai, G. Li, F. Xiao, Z. Wang, A. Xu, "Theory of enhanced optical transmission through a metallic nano-slit surrounded with asymmetric grooves under oblique incidence," Opt. Exp. 18, 19 495-19 503 (2010).

G. Li, L. Cai, F. Xiao, Y. Pei, A. Xu, "A quantitative theory and the generalized Bragg condition for surface plasmon Bragg reflectors," Opt. Exp. 18, 10 487-10 499 (2010).

O. Mahboub, S. C. Palacios, C. Genet, F. J. García-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, "Optimization of bull's eye structures for transmission enhancement," Opt. Exp. 18, 11 292-11 299 (2010).

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, M. I. Brongersma, "Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation," Nat. Mater. 9, 193-204 (2010).

N. Yu, "Plasmonics for laser beam shaping," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11-29 (2010).

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, "The use of plasmonics in light beaming and focusing," Prog. Quant. Electron. 34, 47-87 (2010).

L. Cai, G. Li, Z. Wang, A. Xu, "Interference and horizontal Fabry-Perot resonance on extraordinary transmission through a metallic nano-slit surrounded with grooves," Opt. Lett. 35, 127-129 (2010).

G. Zheng, C. Yang, "Improving weak-signal identification via predetection background suppression by a pixel-level, surface-wave-enabled dark-field aperture," Opt. Lett. 35, 2636-26 348 (2010).

2009 (5)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. Liu, B. Wang, "A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-$\lambda$ metallic surfaces," Surf. Sci. Rep. 64, 453-469 (2009).

J. A. Shackleford, R. Grote, M. Currie, J. E. Spanier, B. Nabet, "Integrated plasmonic lens photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083501 (2009).

H. Kim, J. Park, B. Lee, "Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings," Opt. Lett. 34, 2569-2571 (2009).

M. Consonni, J. Hazart, G. Lerondel, "Fabry-pérot type enhancement in plasmonic visible nanosource," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051105 (2009).

Y. X. Cui, S. L. He, "A theoretical re-examination of giant transmission of light through a metallic nano-slit surrounded with periodic grooves," Opt. Exp. 17, 13 995-14 000 (2009).

2008 (7)

R. D. Bhat, N. C. Panoiu, S. R. Brueck, R. M. Osgood, "Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio of an infrared photodetector with a circular metal grating," Opt. Exp. 16, 4588-4596 (2008).

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photonics 2, 161-164 (2008).

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, F. Capasso, "Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).

C. M. Wang, C. C. Chao, H. I. Huang, B. Ung, Y. Sheng, J. Y. Chang, "Transmission enhancement through a metallic slit assisted by low scattering loss corrugations," Opt. Comm. 281, 2996-2999 (2008).

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, J. P. Hugonin, "Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522-1529 (2008).

F. de León-Pérez, G. Brucoli, F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, "Theory on the scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons by arrays of holes and dimples in a metal film," New J. Phys. 10, 105017 (2008).

J. W. Mu, H. Zhang, W. P. Huang, "Design of waveguide Bragg gratings with strong index corrugations," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1596-1601 (2008).

2007 (4)

B. Ung, Y. Sheng, "Interference of surface waves in a metallic nanoslit," Opt. Exp. 15, 1182-1190 (2007).

O. T. A. Janssen, H. P. Urbach, G. W. 't Hooft, "Giant optical transmission of a subwavelength slit optimized using the magnetic field phase," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043902 (2007).

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, B. Lee, "Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051113 (2007).

X. Wei, A. J. H. Wachters, H. P. Urbach, "Finite-element model for three-dimensional optical scattering problems," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 24, 866-881 (2007).

2006 (6)

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, "Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).

D. Z. Lin, C. K. Chang, Y. C. Chen, D. L. Yang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. H. Kuan, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, "Beaming light from a subwavelength metal slit surrounded by dielectric surface gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 3503-3511 (2006).

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. V. D. Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, "The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wavemodel," Nat. Phys. 2, 262-267 (2006).

J. Olkkonen, K. Kataja, D. G. Howe, "Light transmission through a high index dielectric hole in a metal film surrounded by surface corrugations," Opt. Exp. 14, 11 506-11 511 (2006).

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, J. C. Rodier, "Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 23, 1608-1615 (2006).

2005 (1)

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, K. Ohashi, "Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364-L366 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Degiron, T. W. Ebbesen, "Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations," Opt. Exp. 12, 3694-3700 (2004).

2003 (2)

F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, L. Martín-Moreno, "Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).

2002 (2)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, "Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: Physics and applications," Nanotechnol. 13, 429-432 (2002).

2001 (3)

T. Thio, K. M. Pellerin, R. A. Linke, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, "Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture," Opt. Lett. 26, 1972-1974 (2001).

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kima, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

E. Silberstein, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, Q. Cao, "Use of grating theories in integrated optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 18, 2865-2875 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, "Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by surface plasmons on grating structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Consonni, J. Hazart, G. Lerondel, "Fabry-pérot type enhancement in plasmonic visible nanosource," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 051105 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, B. Lee, "Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051113 (2007).

J. A. Shackleford, R. Grote, M. Currie, J. E. Spanier, B. Nabet, "Integrated plasmonic lens photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083501 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Liu, P. Lalanne, X. Yang, J. P. Hugonin, "Surface plasmon generation by subwavelength isolated objects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1522-1529 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

N. Yu, "Plasmonics for laser beam shaping," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11-29 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. W. Mu, H. Zhang, W. P. Huang, "Design of waveguide Bragg gratings with strong index corrugations," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1596-1601 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, J. C. Rodier, "Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 23, 1608-1615 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

X. Wei, A. J. H. Wachters, H. P. Urbach, "Finite-element model for three-dimensional optical scattering problems," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 24, 866-881 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

E. Silberstein, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, Q. Cao, "Use of grating theories in integrated optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 18, 2865-2875 (2001).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, K. Ohashi, "Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364-L366 (2005).

Nanotechnol. (1)

T. Thio, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, K. M. Pellerin, G. D. Lewen, A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, "Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: Physics and applications," Nanotechnol. 13, 429-432 (2002).

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, F. Capasso, "Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation," Nat. Photonics 2, 564-570 (2008).

Nat. Phys. (1)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2, 551-556 (2006).

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, M. L. Brongersma, "Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission," Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, M. I. Brongersma, "Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation," Nat. Mater. 9, 193-204 (2010).

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photonics 2, 161-164 (2008).

Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. V. D. Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, "The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wavemodel," Nat. Phys. 2, 262-267 (2006).

New J. Phys. (2)

G. Li, F. Xiao, L. Cai, K. Alameh, A. Xu, "Theory of the scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons by finite-size subwavelength metallic defects via field decomposition," New J. Phys. 13, 073045 (2011).

F. de León-Pérez, G. Brucoli, F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, "Theory on the scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons by arrays of holes and dimples in a metal film," New J. Phys. 10, 105017 (2008).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kima, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (3)

L. Cai, G. Li, F. Xiao, Z. Wang, A. Xu, "Theory of enhanced optical transmission through a metallic nano-slit surrounded with asymmetric grooves under oblique incidence," Opt. Exp. 18, 19 495-19 503 (2010).

O. Mahboub, S. C. Palacios, C. Genet, F. J. García-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, "Optimization of bull's eye structures for transmission enhancement," Opt. Exp. 18, 11 292-11 299 (2010).

D. Z. Lin, C. K. Chang, Y. C. Chen, D. L. Yang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. H. Kuan, C. S. Yeh, C. K. Lee, "Beaming light from a subwavelength metal slit surrounded by dielectric surface gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 3503-3511 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (2)

H. Kim, J. Park, B. Lee, "Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings," Opt. Lett. 34, 2569-2571 (2009).

T. Thio, K. M. Pellerin, R. A. Linke, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, "Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture," Opt. Lett. 26, 1972-1974 (2001).

Opt. Comm. (1)

C. M. Wang, C. C. Chao, H. I. Huang, B. Ung, Y. Sheng, J. Y. Chang, "Transmission enhancement through a metallic slit assisted by low scattering loss corrugations," Opt. Comm. 281, 2996-2999 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (7)

J. Olkkonen, K. Kataja, D. G. Howe, "Light transmission through a high index dielectric hole in a metal film surrounded by surface corrugations," Opt. Exp. 14, 11 506-11 511 (2006).

A. Degiron, T. W. Ebbesen, "Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations," Opt. Exp. 12, 3694-3700 (2004).

S. Carretero-Palacios, O. Mahboub, F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Mechanisms for extraordinary optical transmission through bull's eye structures," Opt. Exp. 19, 10 429-10 442 (2011).

Y. X. Cui, S. L. He, "A theoretical re-examination of giant transmission of light through a metallic nano-slit surrounded with periodic grooves," Opt. Exp. 17, 13 995-14 000 (2009).

G. Li, L. Cai, F. Xiao, Y. Pei, A. Xu, "A quantitative theory and the generalized Bragg condition for surface plasmon Bragg reflectors," Opt. Exp. 18, 10 487-10 499 (2010).

R. D. Bhat, N. C. Panoiu, S. R. Brueck, R. M. Osgood, "Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio of an infrared photodetector with a circular metal grating," Opt. Exp. 16, 4588-4596 (2008).

B. Ung, Y. Sheng, "Interference of surface waves in a metallic nanoslit," Opt. Exp. 15, 1182-1190 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, L. Martín-Moreno, "Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

O. T. A. Janssen, H. P. Urbach, G. W. 't Hooft, "Giant optical transmission of a subwavelength slit optimized using the magnetic field phase," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 043902 (2007).

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Zheng, X. Cui, C. Yang, "Surface-wave enabled darkfield aperture for background suppression during weak signal detection," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107, 9043-9048 (2010).

Prog. Quant. Electron. (1)

B. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, "The use of plasmonics in light beaming and focusing," Prog. Quant. Electron. 34, 47-87 (2010).

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).

Surf. Sci. Rep. (1)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. Liu, B. Wang, "A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-$\lambda$ metallic surfaces," Surf. Sci. Rep. 64, 453-469 (2009).

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

Y. X. Cui, S. L. He, Y. Okuno, "Giant optical transmission through a metallic nano-slit achieved by the optimization of the groove periodicity and other parameters," Proc. 2008 Int. Workshop Metamaterials (2008) pp. 236-239.

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