Abstract

We investigate and experimentally demonstrate an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring technique for polarization-division-multiplexed return-to-zero ON–OFF keying (PDM-RZ-OOK) and differential-phase-shift-keying (PDM-RZ-DPSK) signals. Both polarization tributaries of the PDM channel can be simultaneously monitored based on cascaded four-wave mixing in a polarization-diversity nonlinear loop mirror. The interchannel crosstalk induced by nonlinear polarization scattering could be mitigated using the polarization diversity loop structure. As OSNR varies between 5 and 20 dB, the output power of the monitor has a dynamic range of 4.2 and 4.6 dB for the OOK and DPSK signals, respectively. We also demonstrate that the performances of the monitor are the same for both time-interleaved and synchronized PDM-RZ signals.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. P. Winzer, "Beyond 100 G Ethernet," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 26-30 (2010).
  2. A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, D. Cotter, "Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 423-433 (2010).
  3. D. C. Kilper, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).
  4. Z. Pan, C. Yu, A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks," Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 20-45 (2010).
  5. J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).
  6. M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, C.-K. Chan, "A PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring scheme based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper FF2.
  7. F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, P. K. A. Wai, "OSNR monitoring for RZ-DQPSK systems using half-symbol delay-tap sampling technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 823-825 (2010).
  8. B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using delay-tap sampling method," Opt. Exp. 16, 3566-3576 (2008).
  9. C. Courvoisier, J. Fatome, C. Finot, "Measurement of residual chromatic dispersion or OSNR via nonlinear spectral evolution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 537-539 (2011).
  10. K. C. Jong, H. W. Tsao, S. L. Lee, "Q-factor monitoring of optical signal-to-noise ratio degradation in optical DPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 44, 761-763 (2008).
  11. X. Liu, Y. H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172-1174 (2007).
  12. G. W. Lu, M. H. Cheung, L. K. Chen, C. K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2790-2792 (2010).
  13. L.-S. Yan, X. S. Yao, Y. Shi, A. E. Willner, "Simultaneous monitoring of both optical signal-to-noise ratio and polarization-mode dispersion using polarization scrambling and polarization beam splitting," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3290-3294 (2005).
  14. Q. Sui, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, "OSNR monitoring in the presence of first-order polarization mode dispersion using polarization diversity and DSP," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2105-2114 (2010).
  15. J. Y. Huh, Y. C. Chung, "Simultaneous monitoring technique for OSNR and PMD based on four-wave mixing in SOA," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTHW1.
  16. R. Adams, M. Rochette, T. T. Ng, B. J. Eggleton, "All optical in band OSNR monitoring at 40 Gb/s using nonlinear optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 469-471 (2006).
  17. T. T. Ng, J. L. Blows, M. Rochette, J. A. Bolger, I. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, "In band OSNR monitoring and chromatic dispersion monitoring using a fiber optical parametric amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 5542-5552 (2005).
  18. C. Xie, "Interchannel nonlinearities in coherent polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 274-276 (2009).
  19. D. Dahan, U. Mahlab, D. Levy, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering based in-band OSNR monitoring technique for 40 Gbps and 100 Gbps optical transparent networks," Opt. Exp. 18, 15769-15783 (2010).
  20. J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Yue, V. R. Arbab, A. Agarwal, L. Paraschis, A. E. Willner, "Optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring of an 80 Gbits/s polarization-multiplexed return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying channel," Opt. Lett. 34, 1006-1008 (2009).
  21. E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, J. F. Donegan, "Interferometer based in-band OSNR monitoring of single and dual polarisation QPSK signals," presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Commun. TurinItaly (2010) Paper Th.9.C.6.
  22. H. Y. Choi, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique for PDM-QPSK signals based on asynchronous delay-tap sampling technique," presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper JThA16.
  23. A. L. Yi, L. S. Yan, B. Luo, W. Pan, J. Ye, "Wavelength conversion of RZ-OOK PDM signals based on XPM in highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 341-343 (2011).
  24. X. S. Yao, L. S. Yan, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, J. Jiang, "All-optic scheme for automatic polarization division demultiplexing," Opt. Exp. 15, 7407-7414 (2007).
  25. P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, "20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1118-1120 (2008).
  26. Z. N. Wang, C. J. Xie, "Automatic optical polarization demultiplexing for polarization division multiplexed signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 3183-3189 (2009).
  27. J. Lu, L. Chen, Z. Dong, Z. Cao, S. C. Wen, "Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on orthogonal pump four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high-nonlinear fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5767-5774 (2009).
  28. J. Yu, M. Huang, G.-K. Chang, "Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion for 4×112 Gbit/s polarization multiplexing RZ-QPSK signals," Opt. Exp. 16, 21161-21169 (2008).

2011 (2)

C. Courvoisier, J. Fatome, C. Finot, "Measurement of residual chromatic dispersion or OSNR via nonlinear spectral evolution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 537-539 (2011).

A. L. Yi, L. S. Yan, B. Luo, W. Pan, J. Ye, "Wavelength conversion of RZ-OOK PDM signals based on XPM in highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 341-343 (2011).

2010 (7)

D. Dahan, U. Mahlab, D. Levy, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering based in-band OSNR monitoring technique for 40 Gbps and 100 Gbps optical transparent networks," Opt. Exp. 18, 15769-15783 (2010).

G. W. Lu, M. H. Cheung, L. K. Chen, C. K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2790-2792 (2010).

Q. Sui, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, "OSNR monitoring in the presence of first-order polarization mode dispersion using polarization diversity and DSP," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2105-2114 (2010).

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, P. K. A. Wai, "OSNR monitoring for RZ-DQPSK systems using half-symbol delay-tap sampling technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 823-825 (2010).

P. Winzer, "Beyond 100 G Ethernet," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 26-30 (2010).

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, D. Cotter, "Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 423-433 (2010).

Z. Pan, C. Yu, A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks," Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 20-45 (2010).

2009 (4)

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Yue, V. R. Arbab, A. Agarwal, L. Paraschis, A. E. Willner, "Optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring of an 80 Gbits/s polarization-multiplexed return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying channel," Opt. Lett. 34, 1006-1008 (2009).

C. Xie, "Interchannel nonlinearities in coherent polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 274-276 (2009).

Z. N. Wang, C. J. Xie, "Automatic optical polarization demultiplexing for polarization division multiplexed signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 3183-3189 (2009).

J. Lu, L. Chen, Z. Dong, Z. Cao, S. C. Wen, "Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on orthogonal pump four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high-nonlinear fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5767-5774 (2009).

2008 (4)

J. Yu, M. Huang, G.-K. Chang, "Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion for 4×112 Gbit/s polarization multiplexing RZ-QPSK signals," Opt. Exp. 16, 21161-21169 (2008).

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, "20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1118-1120 (2008).

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using delay-tap sampling method," Opt. Exp. 16, 3566-3576 (2008).

K. C. Jong, H. W. Tsao, S. L. Lee, "Q-factor monitoring of optical signal-to-noise ratio degradation in optical DPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 44, 761-763 (2008).

2007 (2)

X. Liu, Y. H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172-1174 (2007).

X. S. Yao, L. S. Yan, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, J. Jiang, "All-optic scheme for automatic polarization division demultiplexing," Opt. Exp. 15, 7407-7414 (2007).

2006 (1)

R. Adams, M. Rochette, T. T. Ng, B. J. Eggleton, "All optical in band OSNR monitoring at 40 Gb/s using nonlinear optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 469-471 (2006).

2005 (2)

T. T. Ng, J. L. Blows, M. Rochette, J. A. Bolger, I. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, "In band OSNR monitoring and chromatic dispersion monitoring using a fiber optical parametric amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 5542-5552 (2005).

L.-S. Yan, X. S. Yao, Y. Shi, A. E. Willner, "Simultaneous monitoring of both optical signal-to-noise ratio and polarization-mode dispersion using polarization scrambling and polarization beam splitting," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3290-3294 (2005).

2004 (1)

D. C. Kilper, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).

2001 (1)

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. C. Jong, H. W. Tsao, S. L. Lee, "Q-factor monitoring of optical signal-to-noise ratio degradation in optical DPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 44, 761-763 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. Adams, M. Rochette, T. T. Ng, B. J. Eggleton, "All optical in band OSNR monitoring at 40 Gb/s using nonlinear optical loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 469-471 (2006).

C. Courvoisier, J. Fatome, C. Finot, "Measurement of residual chromatic dispersion or OSNR via nonlinear spectral evolution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 537-539 (2011).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

P. Winzer, "Beyond 100 G Ethernet," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 26-30 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 88-90 (2001).

X. Liu, Y. H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172-1174 (2007).

A. L. Yi, L. S. Yan, B. Luo, W. Pan, J. Ye, "Wavelength conversion of RZ-OOK PDM signals based on XPM in highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 341-343 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, "20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1118-1120 (2008).

G. W. Lu, M. H. Cheung, L. K. Chen, C. K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2790-2792 (2010).

C. Xie, "Interchannel nonlinearities in coherent polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 274-276 (2009).

F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, Z. Li, C. Lu, P. K. A. Wai, "OSNR monitoring for RZ-DQPSK systems using half-symbol delay-tap sampling technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 823-825 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

L.-S. Yan, X. S. Yao, Y. Shi, A. E. Willner, "Simultaneous monitoring of both optical signal-to-noise ratio and polarization-mode dispersion using polarization scrambling and polarization beam splitting," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3290-3294 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

Q. Sui, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, "OSNR monitoring in the presence of first-order polarization mode dispersion using polarization diversity and DSP," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2105-2114 (2010).

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, D. Cotter, "Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 423-433 (2010).

D. C. Kilper, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).

J. Lu, L. Chen, Z. Dong, Z. Cao, S. C. Wen, "Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on orthogonal pump four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high-nonlinear fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5767-5774 (2009).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Z. Pan, C. Yu, A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks," Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 20-45 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (6)

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using delay-tap sampling method," Opt. Exp. 16, 3566-3576 (2008).

D. Dahan, U. Mahlab, D. Levy, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering based in-band OSNR monitoring technique for 40 Gbps and 100 Gbps optical transparent networks," Opt. Exp. 18, 15769-15783 (2010).

J. Yu, M. Huang, G.-K. Chang, "Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion for 4×112 Gbit/s polarization multiplexing RZ-QPSK signals," Opt. Exp. 16, 21161-21169 (2008).

Z. N. Wang, C. J. Xie, "Automatic optical polarization demultiplexing for polarization division multiplexed signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 3183-3189 (2009).

X. S. Yao, L. S. Yan, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, J. Jiang, "All-optic scheme for automatic polarization division demultiplexing," Opt. Exp. 15, 7407-7414 (2007).

T. T. Ng, J. L. Blows, M. Rochette, J. A. Bolger, I. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, "In band OSNR monitoring and chromatic dispersion monitoring using a fiber optical parametric amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 5542-5552 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

E. Flood, W. H. Guo, D. Reid, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. P. Barry, J. F. Donegan, "Interferometer based in-band OSNR monitoring of single and dual polarisation QPSK signals," presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Commun. TurinItaly (2010) Paper Th.9.C.6.

H. Y. Choi, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique for PDM-QPSK signals based on asynchronous delay-tap sampling technique," presented at the Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper JThA16.

J. Y. Huh, Y. C. Chung, "Simultaneous monitoring technique for OSNR and PMD based on four-wave mixing in SOA," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTHW1.

M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, C.-K. Chan, "A PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring scheme based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper FF2.

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